NEEM BASED PESTICIDE FORMULATION
the knowledge of adverse effects of synthetic pesticides
world wide attention is rapidly shifting to non-synthetic
safer pesticides. Neem based pesticides, is one of such
non-synthetic pesticide, developed by Indian Agricultural
research Institute, New Delhi, India is found to be
useful for control of pastes. Neem ( Azardicta Indica)
oil and seed is known to have inherent germicidal
properties and has been in use for Ayurvedic (herbal)
medicines in India since long time ago. Neem is also
widely grown in other Asian countries and tropical and
sub-tropical areas of Africa, America and Australia. It
grows well in poor shallow, degraded and saline soil. The
neem leaves, oils and products therefrom are used as
medicine, pesticide, fertiliser, diabetic food, soap,
tooth paste, animal feed and even as a contraceptive.
Neem is the most important among all biopesticides for
controlling pests, nematodes (reducing various diseases).
This pesticide does not leave any residue on the crop
like other chemical pesticides and therefore, is
preferred. The efficiency of neem pesticides can be
increased by improving by various methods like crop
rotation, sanitation, deep ploughing, soil solarization,
mixed cropping, exploiting the source of resistance and
the improving quality of neem seed etc. Neem pesticide
are thus a potential alternative to chemical based
pesticides and their use can avoid the dumping- off of
thousands of tonnes of agro chemical on earth every year
and will thus give us a pesticide residue free crop and
The countries where neem trees are grown in abundance can earn foreign exchange since the product has good export potential.
In the last decade, neem has become a source of natural insecticide by replacing synthetic pesticides due to its non-toxicity, environmental safety etc. Neem derivatives have been applied against several species of storage pests and crop pests as leaves, oil, cake, extracts and as formulations in neem oil. These are used alone or with other insecticides.
The neem pesticide is used as emulsifiable concentrate and is prepared by mixing the ingredients mainly neem oil , a commercial grade solvent (a mixture of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons) , and a suitable emulsifier in specified proportions.
The various physico-chemical parameters of this formulation were :
|Flash point||750 C|
|Acidity in H2SO4 equivalents (% W/W)||0.044 and 0.038 respectively of the pre- and post-heat treated samples;|
|Low temperature stability, solid settlement, oily layer and turbidity||all absent upto 6h at 0-20 C and subsequently upto 7 days at 7-80 C;|
|Emulsion characteristics (for both pre-and post-heat treated samplers)||oily layer
and solid settlement absent,
foam : 1 ml at 1 h
: 0.75 ml at 2 h
: nil at 24 h
on re- : 2.0 ml at 24 h,
creamed-: 1.5 ml at 1 h
layer : 2 ml at 2 h
: 2.5 ml at 24 h.
:No visual phytotoxicity against chilli, okra, tomato, brinjal, cowpea, chickpea, green gram, cotton, sorghum etc., and only slight against bottle gourd, the symptoms disappearing by 15th day.
Bioeffectiveness against sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis saccdhari; corn aphid, Rhopalosiphum maidis; the blue butterfly, Euchrysops chejus on green gram and cowpea; Bihar hairy caterpillar, Spilosoma obliqua gram pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera on chickpea and pigeon pea has been reported by using 0.1 to 0.2% emulsions. The azardirachtin content of the oil was determined by extraction in methanol-water and estimation by HPLC.
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