Leather  industry

CLRI, Chennai—CSIR

1.     Acrylic soft binder

Acrylic soft binder is a useful chemical in the finishing of clothing, gloving, upper leather etc. It is used as a binder material for pigment  fixing in leather finishing operation. SEU is 1 tonne per day (one shift basis).

2.     Alcrotan & alutan

Alcrotan is a high performance chromium aluminium-based synthetic tanning agent which is used as a retanning as well as self tanning material. Alutan is an aluminium-based agent containing aluminium (9-11% Al2O3) and a syntan to which the metal iron is irreversibly complexed. This is a freely soluble colourless product. This is useful in the retaining of several kinds of leathers and has particular importance in suede leather manufacture. SEU is 200 TPA of each chemical.

3.     Binder RS acrylic emulsion as binder

Acrylic resin emulsion is very important chemical for leather auxiliary manufacturer as the same is used as a binder in finshed leather manufacture. SEU 500 kg/day (2 shift operation).

4.     Lacquer CA

‘Lacquer CA’ is used for top coat finishes for leather. The technique developed is simple and does not involve complicate unit operations. SEU 150 kg/shift.

5.     Sulphited oil fat liquor

Fat liquors from marine oil using the sulphitation process have versatile application suitable for vegetable tanned, chrome retanned upper leather and light leathers. Capital required is Rs. 1.2 lakhs. Minimum economic plant size is 15 tonnes/yr. This oil is a good substitute for imported oils.

6.     Syntans

Synthetic tanning materials generally known as syntans are used in a number of operations in leather industry like pickling agent. Bleaching of vegetable tanned leather, pre-tanning for vegetable leathers, bleaching of E.I. skins, reduction of sludge in the tanning pits, imparting fullness to leathers. SEU would be a plant having a capacity of 500 tonnes per annum (single shift)

7.     Urethane varnish based on castor oil

To get good shine and superior gloss on leather goods, this varnish is ideal. the varnish also gives protection to leather and gives highly water resistant, smooth and polishable finished surface. 25 tonees of this varnish is required every year and the capital investment will be Rs. 1.65 lakhs. No import of raw material is required.


Marine Chemicals Industry


CSMCRI, Bhavnagar—CSIR

1.     Alginic acid/sodium  alginate

Sodium alginate is used in large quantities in food and textile industry. The process developed is simple and consists of treatment of cleaned and dry sea-weeds with hydrochloric acid followed by washing and extracting with mild alkali.

According to the fresh estimates the SEU for this industry is 200 kg/day.

2.     Bromine

Bromine is used in the manufacture of inorganic bromides for use in pharmaceutical and photographic industries. Organic bromides are used as fumigants. The process is based on sea bittern which is available from salt works. SEU for this industry is 90 tonnes per annum.

3.     Epsom salt from sea bittern

Epsom salt (magnesium sulphate) finds applications in tanning of leather and dyeing of textile. CSMCRI, Bhavnagar has developed a novel process for the manufacture of epsom salt using sea bittern as raw material. A plant having capacity of 5 TPD has been estimated to cost Rs. 15 lakhs.

4.     Light basic magnesium carbonate

Light basic magnesium carbonate finds application in rubber industry and in the manufacture of cigarette and in quality papers. The process developed utilises sea bittern as the raw material which is available in plenty. SEU for this industry is 30 tonnes per annum.

5.     Potassium schoenite

Potassium schoenite is a double suphate of potassium and magnesium. It contains 22.24% potassium oxide and 90% magnesium oxide. It is being used as potash fertilizer in Western countries. Potassium schoenite is specially suitable for crops that do not tolerate chlorine such as tobacco, potato, sugarcane, etc. It is prepared from mixed salts obtained by evaporation of sea bitterns. Suggested economic unit for this industry is 10 tonnes of potassium schoenite per day.

6.     Sodium sulphate from Sels mixts

Sodium sulphate is used in the manufacture of paper. A small quantity is required for detergent, in glass and textiles industry. The new process is based on the utilisation of Sels mixts which is a by-product of marine salt industry of the country. Suggested optimum capacity of the plant is 2,400 tonnes of sodium sulphate per annum.

7.     Zeolite-A

Zeolites are crystalline hydrated alumino silicates. The most important property of zeolite is its adsorption characterisitics and it can act as molecular-sieve, selectively adsorb or reject molecules based on differences in shape and other properties such as polarity. These characteristics of zeolite have resulted in its principal use as water softening agent in detergent industry and other sectors.

The mostly used "phosphate builder" in detergent industry, sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) in recent years, has been found to have polluting effect on the environment and led to the enacting of legislative measures in many countries to stop or curtail the use of this chemical in detergent.  This has created an upsurge of interest in the builder Zeolite-A for the detergent industry and the demand grown significantly. The technology developed can produce       Zeolite from sodium aluminate liquor of aluminium industry or from alumina itself.


Mechanical Engineering Industry

BHEL, Tiruchirapalli 

1.     Small capacity rice husk fired tube FBC boilers

Low grade fuels like high ash coal, lignite, as well as agro-waste such as rice husk, groundnut shell, saw dust, pith, bagasse etc., may well be used for producing energy that can be harnessed effectively for steam generation. With precisely keeping this in mind, the fluidized bed combustion technology has been develop at BHEL and has proved successfully beyond measure.

The technology of fluidized bed combustion was earlier available only to large steam users. It was realized medium and small process steam users would find it just beneficial to have access to this technology. The result is the fluidized bed combustion (FBC) boilers that have developed to cater to the economical and efficient technology needs saving crores of rupees every year.

CBRI, Roorkee—CSIR

2.     Brick extrusion machine and automatic reel type cutting table

The brick extrusion machine is of double deck design with provision for vacuum chamber and straight barrel for housing of the main auger. The brick extrusion machine is of semi-automatic type and has an automatic reel type cutting table. The cost of production of the brick extrusion machine has been estimated at about Rs. 7 lakhs and that of cutter about Rs. 2 lakhs.

3.     Coconut husk chipping machine

The machine developed performs the chipping of the coconut husk without separation of the pith. The pith embedded in the coconut husk fibres contains reactive ingredients which during the process of making particle board undergo a chemical change and impart sufficient bond strength between the chips to form a strong board.


4.     Citrus fruit juice extractor

The Institute has developed a machine which can extract juice from oranges and other citrus fruits. The process is based on extracting pure juice, ideal for concentration and can be used for fruit products and in confectioneries. The other grade which contains slight percentage of peel oil can be used for preparation of concentrates in evaporators. The fabricating cost of the extractor of capacity 10,000 fruit/hr is estimated at Rs. 1 lakh while the annual cost of processing 18,000 tonnes of fruit juice is estimated at Rs. 48,650 excluding raw material and packing.

CMERI, Durgapur—CSIR

5.     Automatic submerged arc welding machine

The submerged arc welding machine is a portable machine consistig of three subassemblies namely, welding head, a voltage controller and a carriage. The machine utilises are voltage as the basic control parameter for the relative movement of the electrode with reference to the variation of the arc length. The machine has a welding speed of 10 to 150 cm per minute and can be used with both AC/DC power source. The prototype has been successively tested.

6.     Hydraulic bolt tensioner

Presently conventional tightening equipment viz. ordinary wrenches, spanners and torque wrenches are used, but these do not ensure uniform tightening. Hydraulic bolt tensioner is an equipment for tightening bolts at desired stress avoiding any torsional effect. Hydraulic bolt tensioner are widely used in the chemical and process plant, general engineering industries, automobile industry, etc. The technology is suitable to those parties who have not workshop facilities with them and wish to diversify the range of their product. The total cost of the project for a plant capacity of 600 units per yaer is nearly Rs. 6 lakhs.

7.     Hydraulic coil expanding and spreading machine

Hydraulically operated coil expanding and spreading machine is meant for forming the closed loop stator coil automatically in single operation that ensures exact and identical coil and simplifies the manufacturing process leading to increase in productivity with quality effectiveness. The total capital investment on a plant of capacity 30 machines per annum is Rs. 1 crore.

8.     Portable oxy-gas cutting machine

Portable power driven machine running on rails has been developed for oxy-gas cutting of plates upto
75 mm thickness. It can be used for straightline and circular cuts. The speed varies from 15 to 90 cm per minute. The cutter adjustments are 5 cm vertical and 7.5 mm transverse and the level adjustment of 70%. The weight of the machine is 5 kg excluding the weight of torch. The manufacturing cost of the machine excluding the torch would be around Rs. 1,500. The prototype has been successfully tested at the Institute.

9.     TIG cutting machine

The constricted arc TIG cutting machine can be used for cutting of stainless steel upto 20 mm thickness and aluminium and copper upto 35 mm thickness. The constricted arc cutting method employs a constricted arc between tungsten electrode and the work piece with a high velocity gas stream. The arc is concentrated and localised upon a small arc operation of the job to be cut. The high arc temperature melts the metal. The machine is of portable nature and has a cutting speed of 20-250 cm per minute. The maximum current is 500 amperes, at 70-100 volts. The cost of manufacture of this machine may be around Rs. 50,000, excluding power source. The prototype has been successfully tested.

10.   Tractor

The tractor has been designed at CMERI. The tractor uses two cylinder air-cooled Kirloskar engine and has a novel type of single level automatic depth-cum-draft control hydraulic system. The tractor has been fully tested at Tractors, Testing and Training Centre, Budni.

CMTI, Bangalore

11.   Auto balance for grinding wheels

Auto balance is an electronic device with which it is possible to balance the grinding  wheels directly on the machine under operating conditions to such orders that the resulting vibration due to residual imbalance is less than 0.3 mm. It is possible to achieve balancing of the wheel to the claimed accuracy in a short duration of about 10 to 15 minutes as compared to the existing time consuming cut and try methods.

12.   Ball nose end mill

Ball nose end mills are commonly and extensively used for cutting tools on CNC milling machines and machining centres. These are essential for production of sculptured surfaces required on components such as dies and moulds.

13.   CNC simulator

The PC-AT based simulator can be used by training institute to train the personnel on operation and programming of CNC machines having FANUC OT/OM control systems. The simulator consists of a key based resembling FANUC OT/OM operator panel and a software package. The simulator key based has PC-AT interface. The simulator software runs on IBM PC-AT with MS-DOS operating system.

14.   Globoidal indexing unit

There are several types of mechanisms that can be used for indexing, like cranks, lever, gears, ratchets and cams to achieve intermittent motion of the follower. The globoidal indexing unit offers a combination of ruggedness, speed, accuracy and controlled output motion. These are highly reliable, accurate , fast and compact.

15.   Keyless drill chuck

The drill chucks, which are commonly used in industries are of the key type. There is no consistency in gripping force extered by the operation in these chunks for tightening. Self-tightening feature of keyless chunk ensures sufficient gripping force because any increase in torque on drill mill further tighten the drill in the chunk.

16.   Linear motion guideways

The conventional sliding contact guideways are inadequate to meet the present day requirements of machine tools which are being used to furnish products with a very close tolerance limits. The linear motion guideway meets the high precision requirements of machine tools with the use of rolling contact guideways.

17.   Recessing head

Recessing head is a machine tool accessory by which single or multiple internal grooves can be machined accurately in rotary as well as non-rotary jobs. The automatic recessing head has been specially designed for grooving operations in bores ranging from dia 15 to 40 mm. It is suitable for a wide variety of recessing operations. The tool can be used as a rotary tool on drilling and boring machines or as a non-rotary tool on turret lathes.

18.   Thread rolling head

Thread rolling is a technique of forming threads by cold forming, wherein the material is stressed by applying pressure beyond its elastic limit, thereby making the material flow to the thread profile. The thread rolling head enables rolling of threads on conventional machine tools like turret lathes and centre lathes.

19.   Universal tooling systems

The frequent changes in the workpiece specifications for limited production in metal working industry lead to consequent modifications in the tooling. The frequent change in the designs of permanent type of jigs and fictures prove to be very expensive. It consists of several building-block and clamping elements in the form of base plates, angle plates, indexing devices, V-blocks, jack screws, bush plates, bushes etc.

20.   Vibratory stress relieving equipment

The vibrating stress relieving equipment is used for relieving residual stresses present in castings and welded structures to obtain the dimensional stability. General workshop facilities are required for fabrication of the device.

CRRI, New Delhi—CSIR

21.   Automatic road unevenness recorder

The automatic road unevenness recorder is used to obtain speedy and complete record of unevenness of runway and highway pavements and other similar surface. It comprise of a single wheeled trailer mounted on a chassis towed by a vehicle at a speed of 30 km/h. The unit gives a quick and permanent record of the quality of the paved surfaces, pin points the irregularities on existing highways and the reading is free from human error. The capital outlay for 15 recorders per year is  Rs. 12 lakhs. The cost of production of one unit is about Rs. 1.5 lakhs.

IARI, New Delhi

22.   Pusa seeder

Several designs of seed drills came into market but could not gain wide popularity because of their exhorbitant cost. The design developed at IARI, New Delhi is simple in operation and construction. The seed damage is less and has higher mechanical efficiency.

IIP, Dehradun—CSIR

23.   Vacuum guard

It is a device for guarding the vacuum in a system and is used as a safety valve in vacuum distillation unit. It can be taken up a side product in a mechanical workshop producing any other item.

IIT, Delhi

24.   Instantaneous braking system for 3-phase induction motors

Braking of motors within a very short duration is quite essential for many industries like printing industries, process industries, mining, engineering industries etc. As such, a system has been developed based on the phenomena ‘capacitor self-excitation’ for braking motors within a duration of 0.5 to 2 seconds depending on the process conditions. The system employs multi-stage braking process. It has several advantages over the conventional mechanical and electrical braking systems. This could be used for motors upto capacity of 50 hp. By making suitable adjustments in the control circuit and also by addition of more capacitors, the system could be employed even for braking motors of higher capacity. The cost of the system ranges from Rs. 1,000 to Rs. 10,000 depending on the capacity of the motor.  

IIT, Kharagpur 

25.   Continuous cashewnut sheller

The shelling (breaking and removal of shell without causing any damage to the kernel) produces great problem in cashew processing because nuts are of irregular shape and kernels are brittle in nature and highly vesicant cashewnut shell liquid (CNSL) comes out during operations.

A continuous cashewnut sheller has been developed. It has a capacity of processing 18 kg/hr of end product with shelling efficiency of 70 percent. It provides 50% whole, 22% split and 28% brokens. The machine consists of hopper, shaft, screw, converyor, rubber padded wooden fixed discs, spring casing , pulley and frame. The size of the machine is 1.2 m x 1.2 m x 1 m and weight is about 50kg.

26.   Low cost portable weighbridge  

A quick evaluation of axle loads of commercial vehicles moving over roads is necessary for detecting overloading of trucks for enforcement of Motor Vehicles Act against overloading. The legal axle weight limit is 10.2 tonnes. The axle load data is also useful in evaluating the equivalent number of standard axle loads for design of flexible pavements as per IRC guidelines. Imported portable weighbridges are being used by various organisations for weighing axle loads of commercial vehicles for pavement design. IIT, Khargagpur has developed a low cost portable wighbridge to determine the axle load of vehicles.

27.   Sun tracking device for solar photovoltaic and solar thermal collectors  

The commercially available tracking system make use of servomotors with feedback controllers, and add substantially to the overall cost of a Solar Energy System. They also require a power supply, and a sophisticated level of maintenance. A low cost device which does not use electricity has been fabricated for tracking the Sun.

In this system the collectors are mounted in a symmetrical fashion to minimise the effect of wind guests. A prototype of the system has been fabricated and tested over nearly three years. The system tracks the sun within 0.5 degrees throughout the day.


IIT, Madras

28.   Spiral grooved grinding wheel

The quality and accuracy of machine part finished by grinding is significantly affected by wheel wear. While peripheral wear in a grinding wheel is a common phenomenon in all-grinding operations, full cylindrical plunge grinding is characterized by an additional from of wear, the corner wear. The corner wear is generally faster than the peripheral wear thus requiring frequent redressing of the grinding wheel and resulting in rapid loss of wheel life.

 A new technique has been developed for reducing the rate of corner wear by using grinding wheels with helical grooves cut on one of the side faces so as to ensure a spiral pattern of air flow. Such wheels have been found to give much increased life.

29.   Fludized abrasive polishing  

The fuidized abrasive polishing method can be adopted to fluidize abrasive particles and use the medium for material processing. Though the concept appears similar to sand blasting or AJM, there are major differences between them, and this process. The main purpose of sand blasting is to clean the work piece surface whereas fluidized abrasive polishing truncates the surface peaks and improves the surface finish. The second major difference is that the particle size in sand blasting is larger than  that of the abrasive particles used in this method.

MERADO, Ludhiana, CMERI, Durgapur—CSIR

30.   Automatic cloth cutting machine  

The electric cloth cutting machines are deployed extensively in the modern garment manufacturing industrties for cutting of cloth according to a desired pattern for mass scale production of garments. The machine also finds application for cutting leather, rexine and rubber for imparting desired shape for manufacture of various goods. The total capital investment on a plant of capaic­ty of 500 machines per annum is Rs. 20 lakhs.

31.   Industrial sewing machine  

The machines is ideally suitable for sewing all types of closing seams on differrent garments and hosiery goods. The following type of operations can be performed simultaneously and continu­ously with this machines:

    i)    Stitching "closing seams" with double chain lock stitch, Type 401.

   ii)    Edge trimming for equal margin from seam.

  iii)    Over edging "trimmed edges" with three thread over lock stitch, Type 504.

The total capital investment on a plant of capacity of 3,000 machines per annum is estimated at Rs. 2 crores.

NGRI, Hyderabad—CSIR

32.   Bore hole logger  

The device is used for the measurement of two electrical properties (potential and resistivity) in the bore hole. The system consist of a downhole electrode, logging cable, winch measuring sheave ground electrode, cable motion sensing system, depth indicator, strip chart recorder, square wave constant current generator, static potential and resistivity separation module.

RDSO, Lucknow—Min. of Railways

33.   Freight bogies for high speed operation

This is an imporved bogie meant for goods stock of railways, suitable for high speed operation and improved riding. It has a suspension system enabling smoother running of goods stock with longer travel springs and damping means and a torsion plant to improve vertical and lateral riding. Excessive wear on rails and wheel flanges, uneven and excessive wear on general bearings will be prevented and occurrence of battering and breaking up of dust guards, layrinths etc., reduced.

34.   Improved flushing valve

The new system consist of an additional attachment which mixes small quantity of liquid disinfectant with water before the end of the flushing operation. The product can be used in conjunction with existing flushing valves, flushing system, water closets of the railway coaches as well as lavatories of residential build­ings.

35.   Retractable anchoring and locking device

Retractable anchoring and locking device is used for locking containers of railway rolling stock. The device can also be used on containers transported by any general engineering workshop having facilities for obtaining casting. The present market price is around Rs. 2,000 for single fitting and Rs. 3,000 for double fitting.

36.   Semi-automatic anchoring and locking devices for containers used in rail and road vehicles

The device developed automatically locks and container having ISO type corner fittings for use with rail wagons or road vehicles when lowered and deposited on the wagon thereby eliminating any risk of the container being inadvertantly despatched in unlocked state.


Metallurgy Industry

BHEL, Hyderabad

1.     Ceramic coating on metallic welding nozzles  

Copper welding nozzles are used in the submerged arc welding process. The tip of the nozzle become red during welding. The nozzle frequently touches the job and gets struck. The nozzle material goes in the weld. This weakens weld and damages the nozzle. BHEL has developed nozzles with ceramic coating which have much longer  life. A four layer coating of aluminium oxide etc. carried out at a very high temperature by a plasma flame argon gas.

CC for 45 pieces per day is Rs. 11.15 lakhs (excluding land and building).

CECRI, Karaikudi—CSIR

2.     Aluminium alloy anodes for cathodic protection  

Aluminium alloy anodes are used for the cathodic protection of steel structures in sea water and also sea-going vassels.  At present cathodic protection is on limited scale, although the need for such a protection is  being realised by the Naval and Port authorities. With the adoption of such a protection the estimated demand of aluminium alloy anodes is expected to be 1,000 tonnes per annum. CECRI has developed a suitable alloy of aluminium, zinc and mercury for cathodic protection. The new process envisages the melting of aluminium and the alloy ingeredients in suitable proportions.The equipment required for the process is indigenously available and with the exception of mercury other raw materials are also indigenously available.

3.     Aluminium, zinc, mercury alloy anodes for cathodic protection

The aluminium alloy anodes are used for the cathodic protection of submerged steel structures in sea water and also in a sea-going vessels. Cathodic protection is being adopted for the protection of ships and marine steel structures like sheet piles and oil drilling platforms.The new process envisages the melting of aluminium and the alloying ingredients in a suitable proportion. The melted alloy is then cast in different size and shapes depending upon the requirement.

4.     4. Calcuium carbide

Calcium carbide is an important chemical used in large quantities by many user industries. Its  reaction product  with water viz. acetylene finds enormous applications in welding and cutting of materials like iron and steel. It is produced by reacting lime/limestone with a carbonaceous material like charcoal/coke in a 3 phase refractory lined electric arc furnace. Calcium carbide produced is tapped in molten form into cast iron chills.

5.     Chromate treatment of zinc and die cast zinc alloy

Zinc and die cast zinc alloy such as automobile parts and others like gas regulators, carburettor parts are required to get chromate film for corrosion protection with pleasing decorative appearance. The process developed by CECRI is very simple and involves the treatment of automobile parts after degreasing and pickling at a temperature of 30-35OC for a duration of  20-60 sec. A large scale trial was carried out with a carburettor firm in Madras and they were satisfied with the treatment. Suggested economic unit for this industry is for the production of 3 tonnes of the product per annum.

6.     Copper plating of stainless steel

Stainless steel vessels because of its corrosion and tarnish resistance properties are widely used and preferred to copper, and brass vessels by house-wives and hotel staff. Periodical tanning of the interior surface of the stainless steel vessel is not required as in the case of copper/brass vessels. In spite of these advantages stainless steel is a poor thermal conductor and also lacks uniform heat dissipation. These draw-backs may be eliminated by depositing a suitable metal of high thermal conductivity with sufficient thickness on the part of the vessel coming into contact with the heating zone. The coated metal not only boosts the conductivity of the stainless steel but also eliminates hot spots. A copper (II) chloride strike bath has been developed to suit large-scale production in industry. The adhesion of copper on stainless steel is excellent and another added advantage is the operation at room temperature. After this strike from copper (II) chloride, the stainless steel is further coated with copper from copper sulphate bath. The unplated portions are masked with wax.

7.     Electrolytic chromium

Chromium powder is used for the preparation of special type of welding electrodes. The process broadly consists in depositing chromium in the form of brittle sheets from chromic acid containing known amount of sulphate ions. SEU for the industry is for the production 22.5 tonnes of chromium per annum. The total investment is estimated at Rs. 26 lakhs.

8.     Electrolytic preparation of iron powder

Electrolytic iron powder finds extensive application as reductant in the manufacture of sintered compacts and welding electrodes and also for special flame cutting operations. The process consists in electrolysis of ferrous chloride solution using mild steel anode and stainless steel cathodes.

9.     Magnesium alloy anodes for cathodic protection

Though aluminium alloy anodes and zinc anodes are comparatively cheaper, their uses are limited fairly to low resistance media. Aluminium alloy anodes can be used only in saline water whereas magnesium with its high open circuit potential can be used in ordinary water and also in soils of high resistivity. Magnesium along with other constituents like aluminium and zinc are melted in a steel container in a pit furnace and cast into anodes of required shape and size.

10.   Method of making cupric (Cu) silver (Ag) and chloride (Cl) ion sensitive electrodes

Ion sensitive electrodes are used as electro-analytical probes for ionic concentration measurements in solution. The electrodes have a wide range of applications. The process developed at CECRI consists in preparing non porous membrane discs of suitable diameter and thickness from the active materials containing silver sulphide or a composite of sulphide or silver chloride. The composites are pressed under vacuum and the resulting membrane are assembled to electrodes. SEU for this industry is production of 1,500 electrodes per year.

11.   Misch metal

Misch metal is a mixture of metals in the rare earths group such as cerium, lanthanum etc. It finds exclusive application in production of cigar lighter flints, in the preparation of hand granades, tracer bullets and in casting industry as an addition agent. In admixture with magnesium, it is used for production of spheroidal cast iron.

The product made according to the process developed at the Institute has been found to be suitable for the manufacture of flint and other applications. The main raw material required for the production of misch metal is rare earths chloride obtained as a by-product after separation of thorium from monazite sands which are available in the coastal area of Kerala and Orissa. The mixed hydroxides of rare earths are converted into hydrated chloride and is marketed by Indian Rare Earths Ltd., Bombay. The other raw materials required are calcium chloride, ammonium chloride and graphite.

12.   Paint removing jelly

Steel structures are painted to protect them from atmospheric corrosion. Before repainting, the old paints are removed. A paint removing   jelly based on plant carbohydrates and proteins has been developed. It can be applied with brush, is quite cheap and can be washed with running water.

13.   Sodium metal

The knowhow for the production of sodium metal has been worked out at this Institute. A 2500 A cell has been designed, fabricated and operated successfully. The process consists in electrolysing mixtures of barium chloride, calcium chlorides and sodium chloride in an improved cell. Optimum conditions have been worked out for obtaining sodium metal at an average current efficiency of 60-65 and the energy requirement is 18 kwh/kg.

Sodium metal finds use in drugs and pharmaceuticals, sodium-sulphur batteries, in the preparation of sodium peroxide, sodium cyanide, in the production of metals like thorium, zirconium, uranium and lanthanum, as coolant in atomic reactors, in the manufacture of tetra ethyl lead and tetra methyl lead.

14.   Zinc metal from by-product zinc compounds

Considerable amount of zinc metal is lost as skimming and dross during galvanising of this iron tubes. India cannot afford to throw away this waste. The process developed consists in the electrolysis of a suspension of finally divided waste in an alkaline solution between an iron anode and a stainless steel cathode. Zinc is either obtained in the form of powder or sheet by suitably adjusting the conditions. SEU for this industry is 250 kg zinc per day.

15.   Zinc powder by direct reduction of zinc oxide/hydroxide/carbonate

Zinc powder is extensively used in paints. It has other applications also. In India, the natural resources of zinc are lean and are not sufficient to meet the demand of the country. An electrolytic process for the reduction of zinc compounds, the oxide and hydroxide in particular, has been developed by the laboratory. Zinc compounds are the by-product of paint industry, galvanising industry and chemical industry.

CFRI, Jealgora—CSIR

16.   Pelletised coke

A process for the production of agglomerates from middlings or rejects of coking coal has been developed. The product does not give much smoke and could be used as domestic and industrial fuel. The process broadly consists of powdering the coal, mixing with organic binder, pelletising, drying and carbonising. Investment for setting up a production capcaity of 100 TPD plant is about Rs. 85-90 lakhs.

17.   Weather resistant, smokeless, hard and moulded fuels

A process has been developed for the production of coke briquettes which could be used as industrial and domesticfuels. The process consists of crushing of coke breeze to desired size, mixing with organic binder in suitable proportions, briquetting and curing at specified condition. The briquettes conform to the prescribed standards of metallurgical fuel and comparable with BP hard coke except in regard to volatile matter and porosity.

Material balance for a production capacity of 40 TPD of briquettes and design/drawing for 20 TPD curing over have been prepared. Cost of plant and machinery is approx. Rs. 40 lakhs for a 40 TPD production capacity.

CGCRI, Calcutta—CSIR

18.   High alumina cements by new technique of sintering

High alumina refractory cement with alumina ranging from 45-50%, 65-66% and 72-78% are suitable for making high quality high alumina castables for application at temperatures ranging from 1300o to 1800oC. The Institute has developed a new sintering technique for the production of high alumina cement from bauxite/technical or hydrated alumina and limestone or calcite at a lower temperature of sintering i.e. 1300-1500oC. The capital investment for a plant of capacity 1,000 MT/year is Rs. 72 lakhs.

19.   Synthetic high alumina aggregates

The Institute has developed a new process or producing high alumina aggregates (54-66% Al2O3) that minimises the use of sintering temperatures and the overall cost of production.

High alumina aggregates produced by this process are suitable for making high quality refractory bricks, shapes and monolithics for applications in the vulnerable region of iron and steel cement, chemical and other industries where high temperature and corrosive atmosphere are involved.

The total capital investment for a plant of capacity 5,000 TPA is Rs. 2 crores.

CSIO, Chandigarh—CSIR

20.   Cu-Zn-Al shape memory alloy

It is a new class of engineering material which when lightly deformed in its lower temperature martensite state/reheated above a certain critical temperature regains its original shape. During this shape recovery, it exerts a usable force or displacement which can be incorporated into varieties of heat sensitive devices for warning, control detection, etc. It is also a substitute for many bimetal applications. For a small-scale production of about 20 kg of finished product per month the plant and machinery will cost about Rs. 6 lakhs excluding the cost of induction melting furnace.

IIT, Kharagpur

21.   Nanometoer stabilized zirconia production process

India has a vast reserve of the mineral containing Zirconium dioxide (ZrO). It is an important ceramic raw material. It is used for high temperature insulation in furnace, container in metallurgy to operate at high temperature (>1600oC). It is a future material of many movable componet at high temperature for automotive industry. Mechanical strength is better than steel, can withstand temperature upto 2200oC. Nanosized zirconia is not available commercially in India. It gives easier sintering for making dense component. All raw materials are available indigenously.

IIT, Mumbai

22.   Chromised steel

Chromising process consists of depositing chromium on an article made of steel or any other suitable material or alloy from a vapourised or a liquefied chromium halide at a temperature of 1000 to 1100oC.

The product thus produced can be used as gas cooking and furnace parts, flue and exhaust pipes, heat exchangers, castings, forging, etc. It can also be used an corrosion resistance material for automotive mufflers parts fuel tanks, for laundry machines, textile machinery, etc. It can also be used as wear resistance material for transmission chain roll (made from mild steel and then chromised) chromised tools like files, taps, dies, fuel injection plates, etc. SEU is 0.3 tonne of substrate metal i.e. 25,000 sq. cm. of chromising area per day of 3 shifts.

The capital investment required for the plant and equipment is estimated at Rs. 81 lakhs, excluding the cost of land and building and working capital is Rs. 4 lakhs.  

IPR, Gandhinagar, Gujarat

23.   Coating of metalware and plastics by silicon dioxide film through plasma chemical vapour deposition

The process developed at IPR involves deposition of glass like coating using a plasma reactor. The plasma reactor is specially designed to produce a thin long lasting coating of silicon dioxide on the surface of plastic and metal substrates. These transparent glass like coating provide excellent protection against corrosion and oxidation environment. In addition they are extremely coherent and have very good adherence to the substrate. These hard coating also provide good scratch resistance and this property is of great advantage for decorative brassware as it retains the shiny appearance for a long time. The application of silicon dioxide coatings is not confined to brassware, but covers a wide range of industrial and household articles. This coating can protect metals and alloys from corrosive environment. Acrylic and polycarbonate which are transparent polymers, but have poor scratch resistance, quartz like coating make their surface scratch proof without affecting their transparency. The plant and machinery cost for a unit which coats 250 pieces per batch having area of  100 sq. cm. each in Rs. 41,75,000.

24.   Sub-micron aluminium nitride powder through plasma arc process

Aluminium nitride is an advanced ceramic with high thermal conductivity. It has room temperature thermal conductivity of 3.2 watts/cm K which is comparable to that of copper. It also has very high chemical and thermal stability. Sintered parts manufactured from Aluminium Nitride ceramics are used  for Nozzles, thermocouple protecting tubes, crucibles and boats. Aluminium Nitride-Aluminium cermet materials often display enhanced physical properties in comparison with single phase ceramic. It has got a number of industrial application in various other industries like electronic, refractories etc. The plant & machinery cost for a unit to produce 24 tonnes per annum of Aluminium Nitride is estimated at Rs. 80 lakhs.

25.   Method of etching a substrate by plasma process

Plasma surface treatment is finding increasing widespread industrial applications as it can produce a number of benefits as compared to conventional or non-plasma related methods of accomplishing the same result. Plasma etching enhances the surface reactivity and particulars in polymers it creates free radicals and active functional groups on the surface which increases adhesion properties. A few polymers which have been etched by this process are Teflon, Polypropylene, Acrylic, PVC, etc. The plant and machinery cost for the Plasma Etching system is estimated at Rs. 25 lakhs.

26.   26. Production of spheroidal metal powder through plasma melt centrifugal automisation process

Metal powders are used for applications such as catalysts, as additive in paints, surface coating etc. Powders are processed in the form of components such as gears, bushes etc. which are used as structural components in various industries including automobiles, household appliances, electrical machines, office equipment etc. The powders can be processed to obtain special products such as porous filters, brake pads etc. Metal powders can be combined with ceramic powders ot other materials to form composites. The powders produced through this process contain high degree of sphericity and involves direct conversion of metal bar into powder. The plant and machinery cost for a unit to produce 24 tonnes per annum of Metal Powder is estimated at Rs. 60 lakhs.


27.   Foundry core binder (Sinol core binder)

Foundry core binder is specifically used in steel foundries for high dimensional accuracy and finish to moulded parts. Foundry core binder is prepared by the polymerisation of cashewnut shell liquid. SEU is one tonne per day.

NML, Jamshedpur—CSIR

28.   Air and nitrogen atomised extra fine non-ferrous metal powders

The straight non-ferrous metal powders are made by the process of atomisation, wherein a stream of molten pre-alloyed metal as atomized by a stream of pressurized fluid under properly controlled conditions to yield the desired mesh sizes, sieve analysis, particle shape and other required physical properties. CC for 1,000 tonnes aluminium powder per year will be Rs. 1.25 crores.

29.   Aluminium base sacrificial anode for cathodic protection

It is an aluminium alloy and contains upto a maximum of 5% alloying elements. The alloy in a cast conditions has excellent driving voltage and no tendency to get polarized.

It is used for the protection from corrosion of ship hull, underground pipeline heat exchanger tubes, harbour installations etc.

The alloy can be commercially prepared in aluminium foundry without requiring any special equipment or arrangement. Once cast the material is ready for the use as galvanic anode in service.

Little capital investment is needed if the melting and casting facilities are available with the existing plant.

30.   Calorising of mild/low steel for corrosion & oxidation protection

Used for high temp. & corrosive application in H2SO4, SO2/SO3 plant, refineries, coal gassification, cars/vehicles exhausts, etc. Technology is environment freindly. Capacity, running metres 30,000 of 50 mm dia, plant & machinery cost  (in existing unit).

31.   Catalytic oxygen scavenger

Capable of removing oxygen from water to the extent of 96%. Useful in corrosion prevention of steam generator, water circulating system, automobile, radiators, boilers, etc. Capacity, lit./day 100,  plant & machinery cost - Rs. 3 lakhs.

32.   Clay graphite stopper heads

        ‘NML Flovel-35’ & ‘NML Flovel-50’

Clay graphite stopper heads are used for controlling the flow of molten steel during teeming process through nozzles fitted at the botton of ladle. These stopper give better performance than fire caly stopper heads under stringent service conditions. Demand is expected to be 300 tonnes per annum. SEU is 200 tonnes per annum and capital outlay is Rs. 36 lakhs.

33.   Copper clad aluminium sheet and strip

Copper clad aluminium sheet has good electrical and thermal property as well as light weight and good solderability. Clad metal can be used to replace copper in a number of conventional uses leading to conservation of copper. The other uses of clad metal are halftone printing plates, decorative tiles and trips, pots and pans, costume jewellery, badges, radiating fins, etc.

Copper clad aluminium sheet is produced by cold roll bounding of copper sheet with aluminium sheet. Adequate surface preparation is essential before roll bonding is done.

34.   Dense carbon aggregate and paste  

The material namely dense carbon aggregate can be used for carbon products like electrodes, solderberg paste cathode lining, carbon aggregate with its low-ash content and good strength as well as electrical and physical properties possesses almost all the requisite characteristics for use as a raw material in place of imported anthracite.

The process as worked out briefly consists of the unit processes employed in traditional carbon industries. Basic ingredients are reduced to a specific fitness, conditioned with a binder, briquetted and then heat-treated according to a specified schedule at a maximum temperature which varies with the nature of basic materials employed. The heat-treated briquettes are then crushed and graded as per the needs of the consuming industry and the product thus obtained is called dense carbon aggregate.

35.   Dental amalgam alloy  

The product in the amalgamated condition is used for filling up the cavity of the decayed teeth. The raw material in the purest form are melted in a furnace. Melt is stirred thoroughly before pouring. Pouring is done in mould. The ingot is then homogenised, processed for obtaining proper particle size followed by suitable heat-treatment. Laboratory scale investigation has been completed. Successful clinical service trial was conducted at Tata Main Hospital.

36.   Electrolytic manganese dioxide  

Electrolytic manganese dioxide is used mainly as depolariser in dry cells. Dry cell manufacture are mostly importing this item at present. Approximate demand for this item is 7,000 TPA.

The process developed broadly consists of reduction of manganese ore at high temp. in the presence of the fuel oil or coke oven gas, leaching with sulphuric acid for removal of impurities and electrolysing with suitable electrodes. NML has developed the process at a level of 50 kg/day of EMD.

Approximately investment for setting up a production capacity of 2,500 TPA is Rs. 16-18 crores.

37.   Electrolytic manganese metal

Electrolytic manganese metal has a high degree of purity and is suitable as a manganese additive for the manufacture of ferrous non-ferrous alloys. The process has been developed for the production of electrolytic manganese metal of 99.5% purity from low grade manganese ore. The ore is first reduced then leached in the spent liquor that comes out of the electrolytic cells. The leached solution is purified for removal of impurities. Then it is electrolysed to give pure manganese metal. CC for 1,000 tonnes EMM per year, production will be about Rs. 7.5 crores.

38.   Extra fine zinc dust

“Distilled zinc dust is very fine zinc powder with upto 98% below 45 microns having spherical particles. Its main use is in Paint Industry and it is also used in sodium hydrosulphite and pharmaceutical industry. The estimated cost of the plant having 1,000 MT per annum capacity is about Rs. 1.3 crores.

39.   Improved graphite crucibles

Graphite crucible are widely used for melting brass and other non-ferrous alloy in iron and steel foundries. National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur has developed process for the manufacture of clay bonded and carbon bonded crucibles.

40.   Inoculants designated as NML-PM 122 for aluminium/aluminium alloys (in the wire form)

An incoculant in the wire form has been developed for aluminium/aluminium alloys. The practice of inoculation in aluminium and its alloy melts is to achieve grain refinement and hence to obtain cast structure with uniform finer grain size. The finer grain size enhances the thermochemical properties, reduces the risk of tearing, cracking into mould etc. The demand has been estimated as 400 tonnes of conventional inoculants. Its production can be taken up by units having facilities for melting and wire drawing of aluminium and its alloys by putting up additional melting and annealing furnaces.

41.   Nickel magnesium alloy

The process developed at NML, Jamshedpur envisages the production of alloy by alloying nickel, magnesium and misch metal. The molten alloy is cast at the appropriate temperature into steps or any shape in metallic moulds. When solidified it can be stored and is ready for use. Little capital investment is needed if the melting equipment is available with the existing unit.

42.   Reactive NML filters for aluminium and its alloys

Aluminium and its alloys are always associated with dissolved hydrogen, oxide and dross inclusion which deteriorate their mechanical properties, workability and service performance. In order to improve the cleanliness of the melt, National Metallurgical Laboratory has developed certain reactive filters which have been successfully tried on commercial scale. The salient features of the filter media are (i) high yield of good quality product i.e. better surface finish, low inclusion and dissolved gas content, (ii) reduction of sodium level in the filtered material, and (iii) grain refining of the filtered material.

43.   Recovery of lead from battery scrap

The process recovers above 90% lead metal with metal purity around 98%. The byproduct—Iron sulphide is recovered as solid sulphide which can be used for the manufacture of H2S. For the pollution control measures, the process requires dust catching systems alongwith smelting furnace. Capacity,  900 TPA,  Plant & machinery cost - Rs. 50 lakhs.

44.   Recovery of vanadium pentoxide from vanadium sludge of alumina industry

Vanadium is an important metal which finds extensive uses in the form of metal, oxides and alloys. Vanadium pentoxide is used mostly as catalyst in sulphuric acid manufacture, for the production of ferro-venadium and titanium vanadium-aluminium alloy and other vanadium compounds.

Vanadium pentoxide produced has been compared with imported V2O3 of equivalent specification and found to be equally good. V2O5 has been found conforming to the refined grade.

45.   Sponge iron production based on vertical retort direct reduction

Sponge iron is used in mini steel plants for production of steel. Based on the installed capacity of mini steel plants in the country approximate demand for sponge iron is about 1 million. TPA. NML has developed the process for producing sponge iron based on vertical retart direct reduction (VRDR) process. The process has advantages like low cost of production, less energy consumption, higher productivity per unit volume of reactor, increased percentage metallisation, use of non coking coal etc. The process is based on the reduction of iron oxide by solid reductant. Trials have been carried out on a pilot plant scale producing about 1 tonne per day of sponge iron.

46.   Stainless steel powder

Stainless steel powder is made from stainless steel scraps. It is used in automobile industries. NML process is a chemical process and is not based on atomisation. Yield obtained is 95-96%. 100 kg/day unit can be installed initially with provision of expansions with an investment of Rs. 18 lakhs approximately.

47.   Vinyl coated steel and aluminium

The coated steel and aluminium can be utilized in instrument and equipment casing, electrical panelling and ducting, panelling in coaches and buses, etc.

The knowhow developed for production of vinyl coated steel and aluminium sheets involves a process comprising of (i) pretreatment of steel/aluminium sheets, (ii) production of chemical conversion coatings such as phosphating or chromating, (iii) application of primer followed by baking, and (iv) application of a finish coat followed by baking at appropriate temperature.

A small scale industrial unit capable of producing 12,000 sheets of 1 sq. metre unit area per year based on
2 shift operations a day and 300 working days in a year is estimated to cost Rs. 6.25 lakhs.

QWMS, Chennai

48.   Process to treat molasses based effluent to remove colour by chemical and membrane technology

The treatment of effluent to produce permeate water, where the colour of the effluent having a psychological impact on the public is removed. This can be used as process water, thus creating a zero pollution atmoshere and is eco-friendly. The quality obtained also conforms to the standards of the Pollution Control Board. Capacity,  m3/day 400,  Plant & machinery cost - Rs. 1.75 crores.


  RRL, Bhubaneshwar—CSIR  

49.   Beneficiation of graphite

Graphite in its pure form is employed in the production of various articles such as crucibles, muffles, saggars, electrodes, paints, pencils, etc. The knowhow gives 96 to 98% of pure graphite per annum. Estimated capital outlay is Rs. 2.62 lakhs.

50.   Electrolytic iron powder

High purity iron powder is used in chemical industries as a catalyst, automobile industries, welding electrodes, etc. The process developed at RRL, Bhubaneswar, consists in the conversion of acid free iron chloride into ferrous chloride. The ferrous chloride is used as a catholyte and saturated solution of sodium chloride is used as anolyte. The anode and cathode chambers are separated by using a suitable porous diaphragm. Stainless steel sheets and graphite are used as cathode and anode respectively. The deposited iron is removed in the form of brittle flakes which are subsequently ground to the desired size. The process has been studied on bench scale and 200 gm of iron powder per day has been produced. Suggested economic unit for this industry is for the production of 30 tonnes of iron powder per annum.  

51.   High purity graphite

High purity graphite finds application in special grade electrodes and brushes, lubricants, sintered product, explosives, nuclear field, etc. Graphite powder (90-96%), hydrochloride acid, the hydrofluoric acid and sodium chloride are main raw materials required. SEU for this industry is 250 tonnes of  90% graphite per annum.

RRL, Bhopal—CSIR

52.   Graphite aluminium composite

Graphite aluminium composite (GRAL) is a new inexpensive antifriction material with very high potential for tribological applications. It can be used for making pistons, cylinder liners, bearings, bushes, casings, wear plates, pump impellers, etc.

The knowhow developed consisting of dispensing graphite particles in the aluminium alloy matrix by simple foundry metallurgy techniques. The composites thus produced are cast in different shapes and sizes. A unit to produce 90 TPA of composite materials requires an investment of Rs. 5 lakhs towards the plant and machinery.

rdcsi—sail, ranchi

53.   Injection system for coke breeze in cupola

This technology has been developed for using coke breeze, a cheap and abundantly available material in place of expensive coke. Trials conducted have shown that 1 kg of coke breeze can replace 1.5 kg of coke in ordinary cuplola and 2 kg of coke in divided blast cupolas. Cost of production of hot metal with the use of coke breeze is reduced by Rs. 50 per tonne as compared to normal operation. Trials have been carried out in an existing steel melting unit. The annual savings by the use of coke breeze in cupola having a capacity of    3,000 TPA is estimated to be about Rs. 10.5 lakhs.

54.   Injection system for coke breeze in electric arc furnace  

The system has been developed for injecting coke breeze into electric arc furnaces  for achieving overall increase in the thermal efficiency of the electric arc furnaces. Advantages of this system include decrease in power consumption, increase in the refractory line life, decrease in electrode consumption, and decreae in melting time. The process has been developed on a commecial scale with the design, fabrication, installation and operation of this system at Alloy Steel Plant, Durgapur and Vishwesvaraiyya Steel Plant, Bhadravati, Karnataka. The annual saving in power consumption by the use of this system in electric arc furnace having a melt capacity of 20 tonnes and annual production of 60,000 tonnes is estimated at about 45,00,000 kw.

55.   Injection system for ilmenite in blast furnace for hearth protection  

The system has been developed for overcoming the problems of erosion of the refractory lining of the blast furnace. The eroded portion can be filled up by injecting ilmenite. This process could also be used in the new furnace as a preventive measure for hearth protection. Commercial sized system is installed at Rourkela Steel Plant, Bhilai Steel Plant and Bokaro Steel  Plant. The pay back period by the use of injection system for ilmenite in mini blast furnace having a capacity of 250 cu.m. is estimated to be about 2 years (approx).

56.   Injection system for pre-treatment of hot metal from   blast furnace  

This technology has been developed for pre-treatment of hot metal to bring down the sulphur content. The drawbacks as experienced in the conventional process of desulphurisation of hot metal have been overcome in this newly developed system. Industrial scale trials have been conducted to establish the degree of  desulphurisation. A fully automatic commercial sized system has been installed at Durgapur Steel Plant.

57.   Ladle heating system  

This type of system consists of the following major items: (a) Burners which can use liquid/gaseous/dual fuel depending on the end usage of capacity of ladle; (b) A ladle cover with proper thermal insulation material; (c) Mechanism for lifting the ladle cover; (d) Control system for operating lifting mechanism.

This system has been designed, installed and operated on commercial scale at a number of leading steel plants in India.

Detailed design/drawings could also be provided for any type of burners using gaseous/liquid/dual fuel.

58.   Laser based diameter gauge for round  rolled products  

It can be used for measuring diameter  of  hot rolled round products. The gauge comprises of a laser transmitter, a laser receiver unit and a PC  based signal processing unit. The gauge has a measurement range of 0-35 mm and can measure products upto temperature of 700°C. The approx. cost per device works out to around  Rs. 8 lakhs. The gauge can be used in wire rods/rounds, cable, cigarette manufacturing industries. A prototype has been fabricated and  extensively tested at Dugapur Steel Plant.

59.   Profilometer (Patented Technology)  

An equipment for measuring the wear of a roll/cylindrical body. This instrument makes a major contribution to the quality of the product by ensuring uniformity of thickness across the sheet width. It can be used in both ferrous and non-ferrous rolling mills. It uses a linear variable displacement transducer (LVDT) sensor for measurement purposes and can measure rolls of size 800 to 1400 mm. The equipment is being  used at Bokaro Steel Plant. The approx. cost per device works out to around  Rs. 2-3 lakhs.

60.   Production of low phosphorous steel in electric arc furnace  

The conventional process of dephosphorisation by lump addition of lime and fluorspar is disadvantageous due to increased oxidation time and repeated slagging and deslagging operations which leads to loss of metallic yield. A new system has therefore been developed for overcoming these shortcomings. System has been developed and installed for a 50 tonnes electric arc furnace.  

Miscellaneous industry


AIIMS, New Delhi

1.     Rescue and emergency care vehicle

The Institute has developed a vehicle for transporting persons involved in any medical emergency (including cardiac emergency) normally encountered like mutliple injuries, head injury, abdomi­nal injury etc., to nearby hospital. The vehicle has been de­signed for easy manoeuvrability though rough terrains and narrow lanes in small towns. The vehicle is also suitable in urban areas as the specially designed stretcher will enable to bring a patient down the stairs in multi-storeyed buildings by one individual instead of four stretcher bearers. Facilities like power, water etc. and provision for all necessary medical equip­ment/stores have been provided in the design. With a built-in wire­less communication system, the vehicle can provide service to an area within a radius of 10 km from the nearby hospital. At present similar vehicles are being imported or received as gifts from other countries. But these are not suitable for Indian condi­tions.

Central College, Bangalore

2.     Non cyanide industrial zinc plating bath

Due to the strict enforcement of pollution regulation and high industrial effluent treatment costs, non-cyanide acid zinc plat­ing baths are gaining importance over alkaline cyanide bath.

A new acid plating solution has been developed from commercially readily available common chemcials which has all the desirable advantages like case of preparation and control of the bath, high cathode and anode efficiencies over a wide range of operation cur­rent density, uniformity of deposition, cheap, stable and low brightner consumption without expensive waste treatment associat­ed with cyanide solution. The bath is useful for both rack and barrel plating.

CECRI, Karaikudi—CSIR

3.     Portland cement coating for steel

The new protective coating developed is based on portland cement and provides good protection to structural steel in salt laden atmosphere. Portland cement, inhibitor solution and water glass are the main raw materials required.

4.     Selective black nickel plating of solar collectors

Selective black nickel coating finds application in plating solar collectors used for solar energy applications. At present selec­tive coatings are not reported to be used for commercial scale. CECRI has developed a process for the manufacture of selective black nickel plating for solar collectors. SEU for this industry is for putting up a plant having a capacity of 5,000 sq.m. per year.

CFRI, Dhanbad—CSIR

5.     Glass reinforced gypsum composite boards

CGCRI, Calcutta, has developed glass reinforced gypsum boards which can be used as partial substitute for wood. Raw materials for the process are palster of Paris and glass fibres in the form of  rovings. GRG panels can be used for making door panels, flase ceilings, partitions, furniture, etc. CC for a plant of capacity 12,000 panels per annum of size (2000 x 1000 x 6 mm thick) is Rs. 17.2 lakhs.

6.     High performance kiln car deck slab for pottery industry

Kiln car deck slabs and kiln furniture are used for firing ceramic ware in tunnel kiln. They are made from silicon carbide or alumino silicate material. Kiln car deck slabs developed by CGCRI have a longer service life of 150 firing cycles. SEU is 2100 pieces of deck slabs per year with an annual investment of Rs. 41.38 lakhs.

7.     Sol gel application of anti glare coating on ophthalmic lenses

Anti glare coatings can be applied on ophthalmic lenses to control the transmission of light through it. This avoids visual discomfort. CC for 1.2 lakhs lenses per annum will be Rs. 4.56 lakhs.

8.     Sol gel application of anti-glare coating on sheet glass

The ultraviolet and blue spectrum light waves from the sun are harmful to the eyes. The process sol-gel coating provides a method for applying an antiglaring coating on sheet glass to control transmission of light through it at a desired level. They are sui­table for automobile windows, home windows etc. CC for 1.5 lakhs sq.m. coating per annum shall be Rs. 25.15 lakhs.  

9.     Special charcoal blocks used in polishing metal surfaces

The process is very simple. The wood available indigenously is cut to desired size according to the requirements of the consu­mer. The wood pieces are then carbonized in externally heated me­tallic retorts and the evolved gases are cooled in a condenser to separate the liquid products namely tar and liquor and the stripped gas is collected in a gas holder and is used as a fuel. From the liquid products, a number of chemicals, viz. wood pre­servatives, methyl alcohol, acetic acid, etc. can be made. The charcoal block produced by this process is of a special nature and is suitable for polishing metal surfaces.

The capital investment of a plant producing 800 kg per year of special charcoal blocks based on 300 working days in a year and 3 shifts operation is estimated to be Rs. 20,000.

Central  Labour Instt.,  Mumbai  

10.   Disposable breathing mask

Disposable breathing masks can be used by workers exposed to dust hazards and as such will be useful in the cement plants, stone quarries, textile industry, etc. The developed mask gives better filtering efficiency and low resistance to breathing. The investment required to put up a unit for producing 2,40,000 pcs. per annum has been estimated at Rs. 2.09 lakhs.


Coir Board, Kochi 

11.   Coirret, environment friendly technology for coconut husk retting

Coirret is a consortia of microbes used in reducing the period of retting of coconut husk and upgrading the quality of retted fibre and rets green husk  fibres into retted fibre in 72 hours. The main raw materials are: bacteria, media, laboratory chemicals & green husk etc. The suggested plant capacity is 20 kg/day and plant and machinery cost is around Rs. 20 lakhs.  

12.   Pithplus, environment friendly technology for coirpith bioconversion 

Bioconversion of the problematic coirpith into an organic manure within 30 days. The main raw materials are sorghum, urea, calcium carbonate, polybags etc.  The suggested plant capacity is 80 kg/day and plant and machinery cost is around Rs. 40 lakhs.

FRI, Dehradun, CSIR 

13.   Wood bending technology

Use of curved wood in furniture and housing is prevalent from ancient times and is of  key importance in many industries even today, especially in those that manufacture furniture, sports goods, boats, ships and several decorative and utility articles. Of the several methods commonly used to produce curved parts of wood, bending is the most economical from the pointy of view of quantity of material required to make a curved member, retention of original strength of wood, and is also perhaps the cheapest.

A technique has been designed and developed for plasticization of wood through vapour phase ammonia treatment for making bentwood furniture components and other utility and fancy bent wood articles. The unit consists of treating cylinder fitted with stainless steel walls and pressure cum vacuum gauges, vacuum pump and water reservoir. The process has been found to be effective even for important timbers, which are not amenable to steam bending.

IIP, Dehradun, CSIR 

14.   Improved hurricane lantern

IIP, Dehradun, has developed an improved hurricane lantern which gives more light and efficiency than existing model at no extra cost. The cost of the lantern is estimated to cost Rs. 10 per unit.

IISC, Bangalore

15.   Fire retardant for PVC coated cloth

In order to impart fire-retardancy to the PVC cloth, a process has been developed for producing. Phosphorus, based polymeric resin which could be used as a coating material for the PVC cloth. The coated cloth is more stable to leaching during washing and meets the specifications of the ISI flammability test IS-1259/1984. The coated cloth thus produced may be used for seat covers in automo­biles railway coaches, aircrafts, and as tent materials and also for various applications.

IIT, Mumbai

16.   Pour point depressant

This is used as an additive, diesel oil, lubricating oil, turbine oil etc. which are of high pour point when blended with 0.2 to 0.8% by weight of the additive can depress the pour point of the oil by 15o to 25oC. The SEU for this process is one tonne per day.

IPIRTI, Bangalore 

17.   Rice husk particle boards

Manufacture of boards from rice husk by the admixture of suitable binding agents is the best method from the point of view of value addition and complete utilisation of the husk.

The process involves use of special adhesive which are efficient binders of silicious materials. The husk is coated with this synthetic resin adhesive in a specially desinged adhesive applicators, which is then spread as an even mat on support cauls and consolidated under heat and pressure in a hydraulic hot press. The resultant product has many desirable properties making it suitable for numerous applications such as wall panelling, doors, furniture, windows, table tops, false ceiling etc.

The product is termite resistant, decay resistant, rodent resis­tant, water resistant, abrasive resistant and has adequate bond strength for all proposed applications. It has good nail and screw holding capacity.

The total project cost is about Rs. 2.5crores  with a plant and ma­chinery cost of about Rs. 1.8 crores.

Institute  for  Research  in Reproduction, Mumbai—ICMR 

18.   Agent to increase the milk yield in cattles

A new antibody has been isolated from a naturally available protein. Encouraging results have been observed in in-vitro conditions.  

19.   Synthetic peptide for superovulation

A new synthetic peptide has been developed based on some natural­ly available protein, to be used for superovulation and growth enhancement in fishery, poultry and cattles. Work has been carried out at Laboratory scale.

NARI, Phaltan  

20.   Improved lantern

Improved lantern is a non-pressurized mantle lantern. It produces light by heating the thermoluminescent mantle to over 1000oC and uses a non-burning, non-charring wick made of high temperature material. It is low cost and efficient and gives light output of 245 lumens, which is equivalent to 25 watt electric bulb or 3-4 times the output of a hurricane lantern.

NML, Jamshedpur—CSIR 

21.   Refractory cement (Fondu Type)

Refractory cement commonly known as clacium aluminate cement is a base material for making refractory castables. The highest temperature service conditions recommended for such castable is of the order of 1350oC. They find extensive application for making different types of shpaes and lining various types of furnaces for ceramic and metallurgical industry.

RRL, Jorhat—CSIR

22.   Carbon paper

Though varieties of other copying papers are now being used in many of business communications, the demand for carbon paper is still  increasing whereas the production is limited. The process has been worked out on commercial scale.

The process as a whole consists of preparation of coloured ‘ink or dope’, application of the coloured ink on the paper surface, drying and rewinding of coated paper and finally cutting of finished paper in standard sizes and packing. The cost of the plant and machinery for a 2000 boxes containing 100 carbon papers (size 210 x 330 mm) per day would be around Rs. 10-12 lakhs.  

23.   Jacquard board

Jacquard boards are extensively used in textile industry for weaving puroses. The process for making jacquard board is particularly advantageous for existing board mills for product diversification and can be adopted without any additonal invest­ment on plant and machinery. The plant and machinery cost for one TPD capacity plant has been estimated to be     Rs. 6 lakhs.

RRL, Trivandrum—CSIR

24.       Hand lay up technique for moulding of banana fabric polymer composite products

The process developed using natural fibre is likely to substitute glass fibre. The product can be used as laminates and protective covers, mirror casing, voltage stabilizer, boxes etc. The SEU for this industry is 7,500 units/annum or 4,500 kg/annum and having a capital investment of Rs. 2.07 lakhs (1984). This excludes the cost of land and building.

SAR, Sangli 

25.   Agrowaste compaction machine

To utilised agricultural wastes like saw dust, groundnut shells, bagasse, bamboo dust, straw etc. efficiently the waste have to be in compacted form. The agrowaste compaction machine has been developed by SAR in collaboration with NRDC to briquette all the agricultural waste without using any binder. The machine is available, in three different designs viz. manually operated, bullock operated and power operated with capacities of 50 kg, 150-200 kg and 250 kg respectively, of briquetted fuel per day of 8 hours.

SCTIMST, Trivandrum  

26.   Disposable blood bag system

Disposable blood bag system has been developed using non-toxic polymeric materials for collection, storage and transfusion of blood & blood components. At present the blood bags are mainly imported under OGL. These bags can successfully replace the bottles used at present due to advantages like non-contamination, easy transportation and elimination of losses due to breakages. The bags have been tested and found to  meet International quality requirements.

The manufacturing process broadly involves compounding, sheet & tube extrusion, welding, injection moulding, testing including animals trials. All the processing has to be carried out in a very sterile atmosphere/Good Manufacturing Practice.

Market potential for the product is very encouraging. At a very conservative estimate the demand is about 10 million per annum. The manufacturing unit giving a good price advantage over imports with quality assurance to International standards will have vast scope in meeting the market requirements. Approximate investments for setting up a unit with a production capacity of 2 million single bags per annum is about Rs. 250 lakhs.



Silk Board, Bangalore  

27.   Resham jyothi, wide spectrum silkworm bed disinfectant

A wide spectrum silkworm bed disinfectant for silkworms diseases like muscardine, grasserie, pebrine and flacherie etc. The main raw materials are chemicals, packing materials etc.  The suggested plant capacity is 500 kg/day and plant and machinery cost is around Rs. 6  lakhs.

28.     Vijetha, multiple use silkworm bed disinfectant  

A silkworm bed disinfectant for silkworm diseases like muscardine, grasserie, pebrine etc. The main raw materials are chemicals, packing materials etc.  The suggested plant capacity is 400 kg/day and plant and machinery cost is around Rs. 5 lakhs.

Plastics, Resins & Paint Industry

CBRI, Roorkee—CSIR

1.       Cement paints

Cement paints are widely used as decorative and waterproofing exterior coating for surfaces such as cement concrete, cement plaster, asbestos cement sheet, brick works, etc. These paints can be used in interior surfaces also. The process is simple and is based on indigenously available materials.

The capital investment for a plant having a production capacity of 2 tonnes per day is estimated at Rs. 5 lakhs and working capital for two months is Rs. 10 lakhs.

2.       Fire retardant paints

Wood is a building material invariably used in all types of buildings, but no treatment is known which will prevent wood from charring at elevated temperature. The Institute has developed a fire retardant paint which can be easily applied to the surface.

3.       Silicate based waterproofing formulation

Cement paints currently in use as protective coatings for plasters are porous in nature and therefore can be considered as a best damp proof. Only silicons are known to give a water repellent film but these are very costly. As a suitable water proofing formulation has been developed.

The capital investment for a plant capable of producing 400 litres per day of 2 shifts, i.e., 1.20,000 litres per year of 300 working days has been estimated at Rs. 6 lakhs and working capital for 3 months is Rs. 10 lakhs.


CECRI, Karaikudi—CSIR

4.       Anti-corrosion packaging paper

The anti-corrosion packaging paper is used for the prevention of corrosion of all types of ferrous engineering items such as machine tools, hardwares machine parts, automobile parts, etc. The process envisages the dissolution of inhibitive chemicals either in water or solvent. The solution is taken in the tray of the coating unit and paper is coated at room-temperature by roller coating technique and dried during travel. The coated paper is wound in rolls.

5.       Calcium chromate/iron oxide primer

Calcium chromate/iron oxide primer can be used on all types of steel structures such as bridges, towers, tanks and girders. This primer is not reported to be used at present in India and the present demand is being met by the use of other primers such as red lead primers and red oxide/zinc chromate primers. The advantages of using calcium chromate iron oxide primer are : (i) it gives twice the life of zinc chromate red oxide primer, (ii) the performance is quite comparable with the costlier zinc chromate primer.

The process consists of mixing calcium chromate with red oxide in certain ratio in a suitable medium and grinding the pigment and vehicle. The balls are then removed and the viscosity is adjusted with the solvent.

6.       Inhibitor for prevention of corrosion cooling water system

The inhibitor is useful for control of corrosion in cooling water systems. The process consists in thoroughly mixing four different chemical in solid form in proper ratio. SEU for the industry is 30 TPA.

7.       Lacquer for corrosion prevention

Lacquer can be used for the preservation of simple metal assemblies e.g. crane shaft, crank-shafts, hand tools, etc. It may also be suitable for the preservation of metal stores during storage and transit. The process envisages the dissolution of asphalt or coal tar pitch, resin and corrosion inhibitor. Suggested economic unit for this industry is for producing 60,000 litres of corrosion preventive lacquer per annum.

8.   Paint stripper

Paint stripper developed by CECRI can be used in removing old paints (stoved enamel rubber paints, bituminous and coal tar based paints). The process for making paint stripper is simple. Suggested optimum capacity of the plant is 1,50,000 litres of paint stripper per annum.

9.       9. Red lead red oxide primer

Red lead red oxide primer has application or all steel structures i.e. bridges, towers, tanks, rail coaches, exposed to atmosphere. The new process consists in mixing red lead red oxide pigment in different ratios in double boiled linseed oil.

10.    Water displacing rust preventive oil

Pickled or phosphated mild steel components have to be dried before the application of temporary corrosion preventives. Because of the time lag involved between drying and oiling, the components develop rusting. The water displacing rust preventive oil developed displaces the water from the metals components and forms an oil film on the surface. The process consists in mixing different constituents under stirred conditions to get homogenous solution.

11.    Rust prevention composition

Rust prevention composition can be used to phosphate steel structure after removing rust and scale to prevent the structures from rusting before painting. The jelly is based on plant carbohydrates and mineral acid. SEU for this industry is 630 tonnes of jelly per annum.

12.      Zinc ethyl silicate primer

This primer can be used for the protection of all types of steel structures in marine environments in place of conventional primers like red oxide/zinc chromate, red lead, etc., which do not give adequate protection and therefore require finishing paints. The cost of protection by this primer is less than the conventional primers.

The process developed consists of mixing zinc dust with ethyl silicate binder along with dibutyl phthalate titanium dioxide and antimony trioxide and the consistency is adjusted with xylen. The suggested optimum capacity is 150 tonnes per year (300 working days) for which investment towards plant and machinery is about Rs. 60,000 whereas working capital will be about Rs. 10 lakhs.

13.    Zinc phosphate pigment as anticorrosive primer

Zinc phosphate finds application in the preparation of anticorrosive primer. The process consists in adding suitably diluted orthophosphoric acid to the slurry of zinc carbonate. SEU for the industry is for the production of 300 tonnes of products per annum.

14.    Zinc rich primer

Zinc rich primer in organic medium may find application in the protection of steel structures in marine and industrial environments. The improved zinc pigmented paint developed at CECRI has better performance. SEU for the industry is for the production of 150 tonnes of product per annum.

15.    Zinc sodium silicate primer

Primers are used for the protection of steel surfaces. The process developed consists in reacting zinc dust with sodium silicate and addition of red lead. SEU for the industry is for the production of 150 tonnes of primer per annum.

CGCRI, Calcutta—CSIR

16.    Alumina ceramics

Alumina ceramics are used for grinding media, kiln furniture, ignition boat, tubes and rods, laboratory wares, cylindrical pins (insulating), thermostat switches, crucibles, spark plugs, flow controllers (oil drilling), wire drawing nozzles, TIG nozzles, chemical slurry nozzles, friction rings, etc. Estimated capital outlay for 270 tonnes of the product per annum is Rs. 95 lakhs.

17.    Low lead wirewound resistors enamel

Vitreous enamels are used for applying an impervious coating on wirewound resistors. The process envisages lesser use of lead oxide which is an imported material. SEU for this industry is 6 tonnes of enamel per annum and estimated capital outlay is Rs. 2 lakhs.

18.    Mica-based textured coating

Mica-based textured coating are used for protection and decoration of most exterior surfaces. It is ideal for metal, concrete masonry and wood surfaces and can be used for buildings, hotels, schools, etc. SEU is Rs. 1.5 lakhs/litre and capital outlay Rs. 9.6 lakhs.

CTCRI, Thiruvananthapuram

19.      Bio-degradable plastics

Large scale use of petroleum based plastics has threatened natural environment the world over. The Central Tuber Crops Research Institute (CTCRI), Thiruvananthapuram, under Indian Council of Agricultural Research  (ICAR) has recently developed a technology to produce bio-degradable plastics which is eco-friendly and affordable. It can be put to many end uses like mulch bags or nursery bags, garbage bags etc. The major raw material used are LDPE and starch along with the coupling and gelatinising agents and plasticisers. The technology can be easily adopted by the existing plastic granules manufacturers, with slight modifications in the plant and machinery.

DLW, Varanasi—Ministry of Railways

20.    Spatter resistant paint

While welding, the weld metal spatter falls on the base metal adjacent to the area being welded. These globules of metal stick on to the base metal and have to be ground off. In certain applications, these globules get dislodged due to vibrations and get access into the various piping systems and create operational difficulties. By painting the adjacent area with the spatter resistant paint to welding, the spatter can be easily removal by simple brushing.

RRL, Bhubaneshwar—CSIR

21.    Pigment grade red oxide of iron

Red oxide of iron finds application in paints, plastics, rubber, ceramic and other industries. The
by-product sodium sulphate obtained in the process is extensively used in paper industry. The process developed utilises waste pickle liquor of steel plant. SEU for this industry is 300 tonnes of the product per annum.

22.    Synthetic inorganic pigment  

Synthetic inorganic pigment is used as an ingredient in paints. It can also be used in belt polishes. the process involves dissolving the iron oxide in water. The slurry is then mixed with ferrous sulphate solutions, sulphuric acid and potassium ferrocyanide. The process has been studied on 0.5 kg per batch scale. SEU for the industry is 15 TPA.

23.   Synthetic iron oxide (red & black)  

Iron oxide is used as inorganic pigment. The new process involves the addition of milk or lime to the solution of ferrous chloride resulting in the precipitation of ferrous hydroxide. Air is bubbled in to oxidize are ferrous hydroxide to the magnetic oxide (black) stage. The black oxide is suitably roasted to get oxide of iron. Suggested economic unit for this industry is the production of 60 tonnes of synthetic iron oxide black and red per annum.