Acrylic soft binder
soft binder is a useful chemical in the finishing of clothing, gloving,
upper leather etc. It is used as a binder material for pigment
fixing in leather finishing operation. SEU is 1 tonne per
day (one shift basis).
Alcrotan & alutan
is a high performance chromium aluminium-based synthetic tanning
agent which is used as a retanning as well as self tanning material.
Alutan is an aluminium-based agent containing aluminium (9-11% Al2O3)
and a syntan to which the metal iron is irreversibly complexed.
This is a freely soluble colourless product. This is useful in the
retaining of several kinds of leathers and has particular importance
in suede leather manufacture. SEU is 200 TPA of each chemical.
Binder RS acrylic emulsion as binder
resin emulsion is very important chemical for leather auxiliary
manufacturer as the same is used as a binder in finshed leather
manufacture. SEU 500 kg/day (2 shift operation).
CA’ is used for top coat finishes for leather. The technique developed
is simple and does not involve complicate unit operations. SEU 150
oil fat liquor
liquors from marine oil using the sulphitation process have versatile
application suitable for vegetable tanned, chrome retanned upper
leather and light leathers. Capital required is Rs. 1.2 lakhs. Minimum
economic plant size is 15 tonnes/yr. This oil is a good substitute
for imported oils.
tanning materials generally known as syntans are used in a number
of operations in leather industry like pickling agent. Bleaching
of vegetable tanned leather, pre-tanning for vegetable leathers,
bleaching of E.I. skins, reduction of sludge in the tanning pits,
imparting fullness to leathers. SEU would be a plant having a capacity
of 500 tonnes per annum (single shift)
varnish based on castor oil
get good shine and superior gloss on leather goods, this varnish
is ideal. the varnish also gives protection to leather and gives
highly water resistant, smooth and polishable finished surface.
25 tonees of this varnish is required every year and the capital
investment will be Rs. 1.65 lakhs. No import of raw material is
alginate is used in large quantities in food and textile industry.
The process developed is simple and consists of treatment of cleaned
and dry sea-weeds with hydrochloric acid followed by washing and
extracting with mild alkali.
to the fresh estimates the SEU for this industry is 200 kg/day.
is used in the manufacture of inorganic bromides for use in pharmaceutical
and photographic industries. Organic bromides are used as fumigants.
The process is based on sea bittern which is available from salt
works. SEU for this industry is 90 tonnes per annum.
Epsom salt from sea bittern
salt (magnesium sulphate) finds applications in tanning of leather
and dyeing of textile. CSMCRI, Bhavnagar has developed a novel process
for the manufacture of epsom salt using sea bittern as raw material.
A plant having capacity of 5 TPD has been estimated to cost Rs.
Light basic magnesium carbonate
basic magnesium carbonate finds application in rubber industry and
in the manufacture of cigarette and in quality papers. The process
developed utilises sea bittern as the raw material which is available
in plenty. SEU for this industry is 30 tonnes per annum.
schoenite is a double suphate of potassium and magnesium. It contains
22.24% potassium oxide and 90% magnesium oxide. It is being used
as potash fertilizer in Western countries. Potassium schoenite is
specially suitable for crops that do not tolerate chlorine such
as tobacco, potato, sugarcane, etc. It is prepared from mixed salts
obtained by evaporation of sea bitterns. Suggested economic unit
for this industry is 10 tonnes of potassium schoenite per day.
Sodium sulphate from Sels mixts
sulphate is used in the manufacture of paper. A small quantity is
required for detergent, in glass and textiles industry. The new
process is based on the utilisation of Sels mixts which is a by-product
of marine salt industry of the country. Suggested optimum capacity
of the plant is 2,400 tonnes of sodium sulphate per annum.
are crystalline hydrated alumino silicates. The most important property
of zeolite is its adsorption characterisitics and it can act as
molecular-sieve, selectively adsorb or reject molecules based on
differences in shape and other properties such as polarity. These
characteristics of zeolite have resulted in its principal use as
water softening agent in detergent industry and other sectors.
mostly used "phosphate builder" in detergent industry,
sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) in recent years, has been found to
have polluting effect on the environment and led to the enacting
of legislative measures in many countries to stop or curtail the
use of this chemical in detergent.
This has created an upsurge of interest in the builder Zeolite-A
for the detergent industry and the demand grown significantly. The
technology developed can produce
Zeolite from sodium aluminate liquor of aluminium industry
or from alumina itself.
Small capacity rice husk fired tube FBC boilers
grade fuels like high ash coal, lignite, as well as agro-waste such
as rice husk, groundnut shell, saw dust, pith, bagasse etc., may
well be used for producing energy that can be harnessed effectively
for steam generation. With precisely keeping this in mind, the fluidized
bed combustion technology has been develop at BHEL and has proved
successfully beyond measure.
technology of fluidized bed combustion was earlier available only
to large steam users. It was realized medium and small process steam
users would find it just beneficial to have access to this technology.
The result is the fluidized bed combustion (FBC) boilers that have
developed to cater to the economical and efficient technology needs
saving crores of rupees every year.
Brick extrusion machine and automatic reel type cutting table
brick extrusion machine is of double deck design with provision
for vacuum chamber and straight barrel for housing of the main auger.
The brick extrusion machine is of semi-automatic type and has an
automatic reel type cutting table. The cost of production of the
brick extrusion machine has been estimated at about Rs. 7 lakhs
and that of cutter about Rs. 2 lakhs.
husk chipping machine
machine developed performs the chipping of the coconut husk without
separation of the pith. The pith embedded in the coconut husk fibres
contains reactive ingredients which during the process of making
particle board undergo a chemical change and impart sufficient bond
strength between the chips to form a strong board.
Citrus fruit juice extractor
Institute has developed a machine which can extract juice from oranges
and other citrus fruits. The process is based on extracting pure
juice, ideal for concentration and can be used for fruit products
and in confectioneries. The other grade which contains slight percentage
of peel oil can be used for preparation of concentrates in evaporators.
The fabricating cost of the extractor of capacity 10,000 fruit/hr
is estimated at Rs. 1 lakh while the annual cost of processing 18,000
tonnes of fruit juice is estimated at Rs. 48,650 excluding raw material
Automatic submerged arc welding machine
submerged arc welding machine is a portable machine consistig of
three subassemblies namely, welding head, a voltage controller and
a carriage. The machine utilises are voltage as the basic control
parameter for the relative movement of the electrode with reference
to the variation of the arc length. The machine has a welding speed
of 10 to 150 cm per minute and can be used with both AC/DC power
source. The prototype has been successively tested.
Hydraulic bolt tensioner
conventional tightening equipment viz. ordinary wrenches, spanners
and torque wrenches are used, but these do not ensure uniform tightening.
Hydraulic bolt tensioner is an equipment for tightening bolts at
desired stress avoiding any torsional effect. Hydraulic bolt tensioner
are widely used in the chemical and process plant, general engineering
industries, automobile industry, etc. The technology is suitable
to those parties who have not workshop facilities with them and
wish to diversify the range of their product. The total cost of
the project for a plant capacity of 600 units per yaer is nearly
Rs. 6 lakhs.
Hydraulic coil expanding and spreading machine
operated coil expanding and spreading machine is meant for forming
the closed loop stator coil automatically in single operation that
ensures exact and identical coil and simplifies the manufacturing
process leading to increase in productivity with quality effectiveness.
The total capital investment on a plant of capacity 30 machines
per annum is Rs. 1 crore.
Portable oxy-gas cutting machine
power driven machine running on rails has been developed for oxy-gas
cutting of plates upto
TIG cutting machine
constricted arc TIG cutting machine can be used for cutting of stainless
steel upto 20 mm thickness and aluminium and copper upto 35 mm thickness.
The constricted arc cutting method employs a constricted arc between
tungsten electrode and the work piece with a high velocity gas stream.
The arc is concentrated and localised upon a small arc operation
of the job to be cut. The high arc temperature melts the metal.
The machine is of portable nature and has a cutting speed of 20-250
cm per minute. The maximum current is 500 amperes, at 70-100 volts.
The cost of manufacture of this machine may be around Rs. 50,000,
excluding power source. The prototype has been successfully tested.
tractor has been designed at CMERI. The tractor uses two cylinder
air-cooled Kirloskar engine and has a novel type of single level
automatic depth-cum-draft control hydraulic system. The tractor
has been fully tested at Tractors, Testing and Training Centre,
Auto balance for grinding wheels
balance is an electronic device with which it is possible to balance
the grinding wheels
directly on the machine under operating conditions to such orders
that the resulting vibration due to residual imbalance is less than
0.3 mm. It is possible to achieve balancing of the wheel to the
claimed accuracy in a short duration of about 10 to 15 minutes as
compared to the existing time consuming cut and try methods.
Ball nose end mill
nose end mills are commonly and extensively used for cutting tools
on CNC milling machines and machining centres. These are essential
for production of sculptured surfaces required on components such
as dies and moulds.
PC-AT based simulator can be used by training institute to train
the personnel on operation and programming of CNC machines having
FANUC OT/OM control systems. The simulator consists of a key based
resembling FANUC OT/OM operator panel and a software package. The
simulator key based has PC-AT interface. The simulator software
runs on IBM PC-AT with MS-DOS operating system.
Globoidal indexing unit
are several types of mechanisms that can be used for indexing, like
cranks, lever, gears, ratchets and cams to achieve intermittent
motion of the follower. The globoidal indexing unit offers a combination
of ruggedness, speed, accuracy and controlled output motion. These
are highly reliable, accurate , fast and compact.
Keyless drill chuck
drill chucks, which are commonly used in industries are of the key
type. There is no consistency in gripping force extered by the operation
in these chunks for tightening. Self-tightening feature of keyless
chunk ensures sufficient gripping force because any increase in
torque on drill mill further tighten the drill in the chunk.
Linear motion guideways
conventional sliding contact guideways are inadequate to meet the
present day requirements of machine tools which are being used to
furnish products with a very close tolerance limits. The linear
motion guideway meets the high precision requirements of machine
tools with the use of rolling contact guideways.
head is a machine tool accessory by which single or multiple internal
grooves can be machined accurately in rotary as well as non-rotary
jobs. The automatic recessing head has been specially designed for
grooving operations in bores ranging from dia 15 to 40 mm. It is
suitable for a wide variety of recessing operations. The tool can
be used as a rotary tool on drilling and boring machines or as a
non-rotary tool on turret lathes.
Thread rolling head
rolling is a technique of forming threads by cold forming, wherein
the material is stressed by applying pressure beyond its elastic
limit, thereby making the material flow to the thread profile. The
thread rolling head enables rolling of threads on conventional machine
tools like turret lathes and centre lathes.
Universal tooling systems
frequent changes in the workpiece specifications for limited production
in metal working industry lead to consequent modifications in the
tooling. The frequent change in the designs of permanent type of
jigs and fictures prove to be very expensive. It consists of several
building-block and clamping elements in the form of base plates,
angle plates, indexing devices, V-blocks, jack screws, bush plates,
Vibratory stress relieving equipment
vibrating stress relieving equipment is used for relieving residual
stresses present in castings and welded structures to obtain the
dimensional stability. General workshop facilities are required
for fabrication of the device.
Automatic road unevenness recorder
automatic road unevenness recorder is used to obtain speedy and
complete record of unevenness of runway and highway pavements and
other similar surface. It comprise of a single wheeled trailer mounted
on a chassis towed by a vehicle at a speed of 30 km/h. The unit
gives a quick and permanent record of the quality of the paved surfaces,
pin points the irregularities on existing highways and the reading
is free from human error. The capital outlay for 15 recorders per
year is Rs. 12 lakhs.
The cost of production of one unit is about Rs. 1.5 lakhs.
designs of seed drills came into market but could not gain wide
popularity because of their exhorbitant cost. The design developed
at IARI, New Delhi is simple in operation and construction. The
seed damage is less and has higher mechanical efficiency.
is a device for guarding the vacuum in a system and is used as a
safety valve in vacuum distillation unit. It can be taken up a side
product in a mechanical workshop producing any other item.
Instantaneous braking system for 3-phase induction motors
of motors within a very short duration is quite essential for many
industries like printing industries, process industries, mining,
engineering industries etc. As such, a system has been developed
based on the phenomena ‘capacitor self-excitation’ for braking motors
within a duration of 0.5 to 2 seconds depending on the process conditions.
The system employs multi-stage braking process. It has several advantages
over the conventional mechanical and electrical braking systems.
This could be used for motors upto capacity of 50 hp. By making
suitable adjustments in the control circuit and also by addition
of more capacitors, the system could be employed even for braking
motors of higher capacity. The cost of the system ranges from Rs.
1,000 to Rs. 10,000 depending on the capacity of the motor.
Continuous cashewnut sheller
shelling (breaking and removal of shell without causing any damage
to the kernel) produces great problem in cashew processing because
nuts are of irregular shape and kernels are brittle in nature and
highly vesicant cashewnut shell liquid (CNSL) comes out during operations.
continuous cashewnut sheller has been developed. It has a capacity
of processing 18 kg/hr of end product with shelling efficiency of
70 percent. It provides 50% whole, 22% split and 28% brokens. The
machine consists of hopper, shaft, screw, converyor, rubber padded
wooden fixed discs, spring casing , pulley and frame. The size of
the machine is 1.2 m x 1.2 m x 1 m and weight is about 50kg.
Low cost portable weighbridge
quick evaluation of axle loads of commercial vehicles moving over
roads is necessary for detecting overloading of trucks for enforcement
of Motor Vehicles Act against overloading. The legal axle weight
limit is 10.2 tonnes. The axle load data is also useful in evaluating
the equivalent number of standard axle loads for design of flexible
pavements as per IRC guidelines. Imported portable weighbridges
are being used by various organisations for weighing axle loads
of commercial vehicles for pavement design. IIT, Khargagpur has
developed a low cost portable wighbridge to determine the axle load
Sun tracking device for solar photovoltaic and solar thermal
commercially available tracking system make use of servomotors with
feedback controllers, and add substantially to the overall cost
of a Solar Energy System. They also require a power supply, and
a sophisticated level of maintenance. A low cost device which does
not use electricity has been fabricated for tracking the Sun.
this system the collectors are mounted in a symmetrical fashion
to minimise the effect of wind guests. A prototype of the system
has been fabricated and tested over nearly three years. The system
tracks the sun within 0.5 degrees throughout the day.
Spiral grooved grinding wheel
quality and accuracy of machine part finished by grinding is significantly
affected by wheel wear. While peripheral wear in a grinding wheel
is a common phenomenon in all-grinding operations, full cylindrical
plunge grinding is characterized by an additional from of wear,
the corner wear. The corner wear is generally faster than the peripheral
wear thus requiring frequent redressing of the grinding wheel and
resulting in rapid loss of wheel life.
new technique has been developed for reducing the rate of corner
wear by using grinding wheels with helical grooves cut on one of
the side faces so as to ensure a spiral pattern of air flow. Such
wheels have been found to give much increased life.
Fludized abrasive polishing
fuidized abrasive polishing method can be adopted to fluidize abrasive
particles and use the medium for material processing. Though the
concept appears similar to sand blasting or AJM, there are major
differences between them, and this process. The main purpose of
sand blasting is to clean the work piece surface whereas fluidized
abrasive polishing truncates the surface peaks and improves the
surface finish. The second major difference is that the particle
size in sand blasting is larger than
that of the abrasive particles used in this method.
Ludhiana, CMERI, Durgapur—CSIR
Automatic cloth cutting machine
electric cloth cutting machines are deployed extensively in the
modern garment manufacturing industrties for cutting of cloth according
to a desired pattern for mass scale production of garments. The
machine also finds application for cutting leather, rexine and rubber
for imparting desired shape for manufacture of various goods. The
total capital investment on a plant of capaicty of 500 machines
per annum is Rs. 20 lakhs.
Industrial sewing machine
machines is ideally suitable for sewing all types of closing seams
on differrent garments and hosiery goods. The following type of
operations can be performed simultaneously and continuously with
Stitching "closing seams" with double chain lock
stitch, Type 401.
Edge trimming for equal margin from seam.
Over edging "trimmed edges" with three thread over
lock stitch, Type 504.
total capital investment on a plant of capacity of 3,000 machines
per annum is estimated at Rs. 2 crores.
Bore hole logger
device is used for the measurement of two electrical properties
(potential and resistivity) in the bore hole. The system consist
of a downhole electrode, logging cable, winch measuring sheave ground
electrode, cable motion sensing system, depth indicator, strip chart
recorder, square wave constant current generator, static potential
and resistivity separation module.
RDSO, Lucknow—Min. of Railways
Freight bogies for high speed operation
is an imporved bogie meant for goods stock of railways, suitable
for high speed operation and improved riding. It has a suspension
system enabling smoother running of goods stock with longer travel
springs and damping means and a torsion plant to improve vertical
and lateral riding. Excessive wear on rails and wheel flanges, uneven
and excessive wear on general bearings will be prevented and occurrence
of battering and breaking up of dust guards, layrinths etc., reduced.
Improved flushing valve
new system consist of an additional attachment which mixes small
quantity of liquid disinfectant with water before the end of the
flushing operation. The product can be used in conjunction with
existing flushing valves, flushing system, water closets of the
railway coaches as well as lavatories of residential buildings.
Retractable anchoring and locking device
anchoring and locking device is used for locking containers of railway
rolling stock. The device can also be used on containers transported
by any general engineering workshop having facilities for obtaining
casting. The present market price is around Rs. 2,000 for single
fitting and Rs. 3,000 for double fitting.
Semi-automatic anchoring and locking devices for containers
used in rail and road vehicles
device developed automatically locks and container having ISO type
corner fittings for use with rail wagons or road vehicles when lowered
and deposited on the wagon thereby eliminating any risk of the container
being inadvertantly despatched in unlocked state.
Ceramic coating on metallic welding nozzles
welding nozzles are used in the submerged arc welding process. The
tip of the nozzle become red during welding. The nozzle frequently
touches the job and gets struck. The nozzle material goes in the
weld. This weakens weld and damages the nozzle. BHEL has developed
nozzles with ceramic coating which have much longer
life. A four layer coating of aluminium oxide etc. carried
out at a very high temperature by a plasma flame argon gas.
for 45 pieces per day is Rs. 11.15 lakhs (excluding land and building).
Aluminium alloy anodes for cathodic protection
alloy anodes are used for the cathodic protection of steel structures
in sea water and also sea-going vassels.
At present cathodic protection is on limited scale, although
the need for such a protection is
being realised by the Naval and Port authorities. With the
adoption of such a protection the estimated demand of aluminium
alloy anodes is expected to be 1,000 tonnes per annum. CECRI has
developed a suitable alloy of aluminium, zinc and mercury for cathodic
protection. The new process envisages the melting of aluminium and
the alloy ingeredients in suitable proportions.The equipment required
for the process is indigenously available and with the exception
of mercury other raw materials are also indigenously available.
Aluminium, zinc, mercury alloy anodes for cathodic protection
aluminium alloy anodes are used for the cathodic protection of submerged
steel structures in sea water and also in a sea-going vessels. Cathodic
protection is being adopted for the protection of ships and marine
steel structures like sheet piles and oil drilling platforms.The
new process envisages the melting of aluminium and the alloying
ingredients in a suitable proportion. The melted alloy is then cast
in different size and shapes depending upon the requirement.
carbide is an important chemical used in large quantities by many
user industries. Its reaction
product with water
viz. acetylene finds enormous applications in welding and cutting
of materials like iron and steel. It is produced by reacting lime/limestone
with a carbonaceous material like charcoal/coke in a 3 phase refractory
lined electric arc furnace. Calcium carbide produced is tapped in
molten form into cast iron chills.
Chromate treatment of zinc and die cast zinc alloy
and die cast zinc alloy such as automobile parts and others like
gas regulators, carburettor parts are required to get chromate film
for corrosion protection with pleasing decorative appearance. The
process developed by CECRI is very simple and involves the treatment
of automobile parts after degreasing and pickling at a temperature
for a duration of 20-60
sec. A large scale trial was carried out with a carburettor firm
in Madras and they were satisfied with the treatment. Suggested
economic unit for this industry is for the production of 3 tonnes
of the product per annum.
of stainless steel
steel vessels because of its corrosion and tarnish resistance properties
are widely used and preferred to copper, and brass vessels by house-wives
and hotel staff. Periodical tanning of the interior surface of the
stainless steel vessel is not required as in the case of copper/brass
vessels. In spite of these advantages stainless steel is a poor
thermal conductor and also lacks uniform heat dissipation. These
draw-backs may be eliminated by depositing a suitable metal of high
thermal conductivity with sufficient thickness on the part of the
vessel coming into contact with the heating zone. The coated metal
not only boosts the conductivity of the stainless steel but also
eliminates hot spots. A copper (II) chloride strike bath has been
developed to suit large-scale production in industry. The adhesion
of copper on stainless steel is excellent and another added advantage
is the operation at room temperature. After this strike from copper
(II) chloride, the stainless steel is further coated with copper
from copper sulphate bath. The unplated portions are masked with
powder is used for the preparation of special type of welding electrodes.
The process broadly consists in depositing chromium in the form
of brittle sheets from chromic acid containing known amount of sulphate
ions. SEU for the industry is for the production 22.5 tonnes of
chromium per annum. The total investment is estimated at Rs. 26
Electrolytic preparation of iron powder
iron powder finds extensive application as reductant in the manufacture
of sintered compacts and welding electrodes and also for special
flame cutting operations. The process consists in electrolysis of
ferrous chloride solution using mild steel anode and stainless steel
Magnesium alloy anodes for cathodic protection
aluminium alloy anodes and zinc anodes are comparatively cheaper,
their uses are limited fairly to low resistance media. Aluminium
alloy anodes can be used only in saline water whereas magnesium
with its high open circuit potential can be used in ordinary water
and also in soils of high resistivity. Magnesium along with other
constituents like aluminium and zinc are melted in a steel container
in a pit furnace and cast into anodes of required shape and size.
Method of making cupric
(Cu) silver (Ag) and chloride (Cl) ion sensitive electrodes
sensitive electrodes are used as electro-analytical probes for ionic
concentration measurements in solution. The electrodes have a wide
range of applications. The process developed at CECRI consists in
preparing non porous membrane discs of suitable diameter and thickness
from the active materials containing silver sulphide or a composite
of sulphide or silver chloride. The composites are pressed under
vacuum and the resulting membrane are assembled to electrodes. SEU
for this industry is production of 1,500 electrodes per year.
metal is a mixture of metals in the rare earths group such as cerium,
lanthanum etc. It finds exclusive application in production of cigar
lighter flints, in the preparation of hand granades, tracer bullets
and in casting industry as an addition agent. In admixture with
magnesium, it is used for production of spheroidal cast iron.
product made according to the process developed at the Institute
has been found to be suitable for the manufacture of flint and other
applications. The main raw material required for the production
of misch metal is rare earths chloride obtained as a by-product
after separation of thorium from monazite sands which are available
in the coastal area of Kerala and Orissa. The mixed hydroxides of
rare earths are converted into hydrated chloride and is marketed
by Indian Rare Earths Ltd., Bombay. The other raw materials required
are calcium chloride, ammonium chloride and graphite.
Paint removing jelly
structures are painted to protect them from atmospheric corrosion.
Before repainting, the old paints are removed. A paint removing
jelly based on plant carbohydrates and proteins has been
developed. It can be applied with brush, is quite cheap and can
be washed with running water.
knowhow for the production of sodium metal has been worked out at
this Institute. A 2500 A cell has been designed, fabricated and
operated successfully. The process consists in electrolysing mixtures
of barium chloride, calcium chlorides and sodium chloride in an
improved cell. Optimum conditions have been worked out for obtaining
sodium metal at an average current efficiency of 60-65 and the energy
requirement is 18 kwh/kg.
metal finds use in drugs and pharmaceuticals, sodium-sulphur batteries,
in the preparation of sodium peroxide, sodium cyanide, in the production
of metals like thorium, zirconium, uranium and lanthanum, as coolant
in atomic reactors, in the manufacture of tetra ethyl lead and tetra
Zinc metal from by-product
amount of zinc metal is lost as skimming and dross during galvanising
of this iron tubes. India cannot afford to throw away this waste.
The process developed consists in the electrolysis of a suspension
of finally divided waste in an alkaline solution between an iron
anode and a stainless steel cathode. Zinc is either obtained in
the form of powder or sheet by suitably adjusting the conditions.
SEU for this industry is 250 kg zinc per day.
Zinc powder by direct
reduction of zinc oxide/hydroxide/carbonate
powder is extensively used in paints. It has other applications
also. In India, the natural resources of zinc are lean and are not
sufficient to meet the demand of the country. An electrolytic process
for the reduction of zinc compounds, the oxide and hydroxide in
particular, has been developed by the laboratory. Zinc compounds
are the by-product of paint industry, galvanising industry and chemical
process for the production of agglomerates from middlings or rejects
of coking coal has been developed. The product does not give much
smoke and could be used as domestic and industrial fuel. The process
broadly consists of powdering the coal, mixing with organic binder,
pelletising, drying and carbonising. Investment for setting up a
production capcaity of 100 TPD plant is about Rs. 85-90 lakhs.
Weather resistant, smokeless,
hard and moulded fuels
process has been developed for the production of coke briquettes
which could be used as industrial and domesticfuels. The process
consists of crushing of coke breeze to desired size, mixing with
organic binder in suitable proportions, briquetting and curing at
specified condition. The briquettes conform to the prescribed standards
of metallurgical fuel and comparable with BP hard coke except in
regard to volatile matter and porosity.
balance for a production capacity of 40 TPD of briquettes and design/drawing
for 20 TPD curing over have been prepared. Cost of plant and machinery
is approx. Rs. 40 lakhs for a 40 TPD production capacity.
High alumina cements
by new technique of sintering
alumina refractory cement with alumina ranging from 45-50%, 65-66%
and 72-78% are suitable for making high quality high alumina castables
for application at temperatures ranging from 1300o
The Institute has developed a new sintering technique for the production
of high alumina cement from bauxite/technical or hydrated alumina
and limestone or calcite at a lower temperature of sintering i.e.
The capital investment for a plant of capacity 1,000 MT/year is
Rs. 72 lakhs.
Synthetic high alumina
Institute has developed a new process or producing high alumina
aggregates (54-66% Al2O3)
that minimises the use of sintering temperatures and the overall
cost of production.
alumina aggregates produced by this process are suitable for making
high quality refractory bricks, shapes and monolithics for applications
in the vulnerable region of iron and steel cement, chemical and
other industries where high temperature and corrosive atmosphere
total capital investment for a plant of capacity 5,000 TPA is Rs.
Cu-Zn-Al shape memory
is a new class of engineering material which when lightly deformed
in its lower temperature martensite state/reheated above a certain
critical temperature regains its original shape. During this shape
recovery, it exerts a usable force or displacement which can be
incorporated into varieties of heat sensitive devices for warning,
control detection, etc. It is also a substitute for many bimetal
applications. For a small-scale production of about 20 kg of finished
product per month the plant and machinery will cost about Rs. 6
lakhs excluding the cost of induction melting furnace.
Nanometoer stabilized zirconia production process
has a vast reserve of the mineral containing Zirconium dioxide (ZrO).
It is an important ceramic raw material. It is used for high temperature
insulation in furnace, container in metallurgy to operate at high
It is a future material of many movable componet at high temperature
for automotive industry. Mechanical strength is better than steel,
can withstand temperature upto 2200oC.
Nanosized zirconia is not available commercially in India. It gives
easier sintering for making dense component. All raw materials are
process consists of depositing chromium on an article made of steel
or any other suitable material or alloy from a vapourised or a liquefied
chromium halide at a temperature of 1000 to 1100oC.
product thus produced can be used as gas cooking and furnace parts,
flue and exhaust pipes, heat exchangers, castings, forging, etc.
It can also be used an corrosion resistance material for automotive
mufflers parts fuel tanks, for laundry machines, textile machinery,
etc. It can also be used as wear resistance material for transmission
chain roll (made from mild steel and then chromised) chromised tools
like files, taps, dies, fuel injection plates, etc. SEU is 0.3 tonne
of substrate metal i.e. 25,000 sq. cm. of chromising area per day
of 3 shifts.
capital investment required for the plant and equipment is estimated
at Rs. 81 lakhs, excluding the cost of land and building and working
capital is Rs. 4 lakhs.
Coating of metalware and plastics by silicon dioxide film
through plasma chemical vapour deposition
process developed at IPR involves deposition of glass like coating
using a plasma reactor. The plasma reactor is specially designed
to produce a thin long lasting coating of silicon dioxide on the
surface of plastic and metal substrates. These transparent glass
like coating provide excellent protection against corrosion and
oxidation environment. In addition they are extremely coherent and
have very good adherence to the substrate. These hard coating also
provide good scratch resistance and this property is of great advantage
for decorative brassware as it retains the shiny appearance for
a long time. The application of silicon dioxide coatings is not
confined to brassware, but covers a wide range of industrial and
household articles. This coating can protect metals and alloys from
corrosive environment. Acrylic and polycarbonate which are transparent
polymers, but have poor scratch resistance, quartz like coating
make their surface scratch proof without affecting their transparency.
The plant and machinery cost for a unit which coats 250 pieces per
batch having area of 100
sq. cm. each in Rs. 41,75,000.
Sub-micron aluminium nitride powder through plasma arc process
nitride is an advanced ceramic with high thermal conductivity. It
has room temperature thermal conductivity of 3.2 watts/cm K which
is comparable to that of copper. It also has very high chemical
and thermal stability. Sintered parts manufactured from Aluminium
Nitride ceramics are used for Nozzles, thermocouple protecting tubes, crucibles and boats.
Aluminium Nitride-Aluminium cermet materials often display enhanced
physical properties in comparison with single phase ceramic. It
has got a number of industrial application in various other industries
like electronic, refractories etc. The plant & machinery cost
for a unit to produce 24 tonnes per annum of Aluminium Nitride is
estimated at Rs. 80 lakhs.
Method of etching a substrate by plasma process
surface treatment is finding increasing widespread industrial applications
as it can produce a number of benefits as compared to conventional
or non-plasma related methods of accomplishing the same result.
Plasma etching enhances the surface reactivity and particulars in
polymers it creates free radicals and active functional groups on
the surface which increases adhesion properties. A few polymers
which have been etched by this process are Teflon, Polypropylene,
Acrylic, PVC, etc. The plant and machinery cost for the Plasma Etching
system is estimated at Rs. 25 lakhs.
26. Production of spheroidal metal powder through plasma
melt centrifugal automisation process
powders are used for applications such as catalysts, as additive
in paints, surface coating etc. Powders are processed in the form
of components such as gears, bushes etc. which are used as structural
components in various industries including automobiles, household
appliances, electrical machines, office equipment etc. The powders
can be processed to obtain special products such as porous filters,
brake pads etc. Metal powders can be combined with ceramic powders
ot other materials to form composites. The powders produced through
this process contain high degree of sphericity and involves direct
conversion of metal bar into powder. The plant and machinery cost
for a unit to produce 24 tonnes per annum of Metal Powder is estimated
at Rs. 60 lakhs.
Foundry core binder
(Sinol core binder)
core binder is specifically used in steel foundries for high dimensional
accuracy and finish to moulded parts. Foundry core binder is prepared
by the polymerisation of cashewnut shell liquid. SEU is one tonne
Air and nitrogen atomised extra fine non-ferrous metal powders
straight non-ferrous metal powders are made by the process of atomisation,
wherein a stream of molten pre-alloyed metal as atomized by a stream
of pressurized fluid under properly controlled conditions to yield
the desired mesh sizes, sieve analysis, particle shape and other
required physical properties. CC for 1,000 tonnes aluminium powder
per year will be Rs. 1.25 crores.
Aluminium base sacrificial
anode for cathodic protection
is an aluminium alloy and contains upto a maximum of 5% alloying
elements. The alloy in a cast conditions has excellent driving voltage
and no tendency to get polarized.
is used for the protection from corrosion of ship hull, underground
pipeline heat exchanger tubes, harbour installations etc.
alloy can be commercially prepared in aluminium foundry without
requiring any special equipment or arrangement. Once cast the material
is ready for the use as galvanic anode in service.
capital investment is needed if the melting and casting facilities
are available with the existing plant.
Calorising of mild/low
steel for corrosion & oxidation protection
for high temp. & corrosive application in H2SO4,
plant, refineries, coal gassification, cars/vehicles exhausts, etc.
Technology is environment freindly. Capacity, running metres 30,000
of 50 mm dia, plant & machinery cost (in existing unit).
Catalytic oxygen scavenger
of removing oxygen from water to the extent of 96%. Useful in corrosion
prevention of steam generator, water circulating system, automobile,
radiators, boilers, etc. Capacity, lit./day 100,
plant & machinery cost - Rs. 3 lakhs.
Clay graphite stopper
Flovel-35’ & ‘NML Flovel-50’
graphite stopper heads are used for controlling the flow of molten
steel during teeming process through nozzles fitted at the botton
of ladle. These stopper give better performance than fire caly stopper
heads under stringent service conditions. Demand is expected to
be 300 tonnes per annum. SEU is 200 tonnes per annum and capital
outlay is Rs. 36 lakhs.
Copper clad aluminium
sheet and strip
clad aluminium sheet has good electrical and thermal property as
well as light weight and good solderability. Clad metal can be used
to replace copper in a number of conventional uses leading to conservation
of copper. The other uses of clad metal are halftone printing plates,
decorative tiles and trips, pots and pans, costume jewellery, badges,
radiating fins, etc.
clad aluminium sheet is produced by cold roll bounding of copper
sheet with aluminium sheet. Adequate surface preparation is essential
before roll bonding is done.
Dense carbon aggregate
material namely dense carbon aggregate can be used for carbon products
like electrodes, solderberg paste cathode lining, carbon aggregate
with its low-ash content and good strength as well as electrical
and physical properties possesses almost all the requisite characteristics
for use as a raw material in place of imported anthracite.
process as worked out briefly consists of the unit processes employed
in traditional carbon industries. Basic ingredients are reduced
to a specific fitness, conditioned with a binder, briquetted and
then heat-treated according to a specified schedule at a maximum
temperature which varies with the nature of basic materials employed.
The heat-treated briquettes are then crushed and graded as per the
needs of the consuming industry and the product thus obtained is
called dense carbon aggregate.
Dental amalgam alloy
product in the amalgamated condition is used for filling up the
cavity of the decayed teeth. The raw material in the purest form
are melted in a furnace. Melt is stirred thoroughly before pouring.
Pouring is done in mould. The ingot is then homogenised, processed
for obtaining proper particle size followed by suitable heat-treatment.
Laboratory scale investigation has been completed. Successful clinical
service trial was conducted at Tata Main Hospital.
manganese dioxide is used mainly as depolariser in dry cells. Dry
cell manufacture are mostly importing this item at present. Approximate
demand for this item is 7,000 TPA.
process developed broadly consists of reduction of manganese ore
at high temp. in the presence of the fuel oil or coke oven gas,
leaching with sulphuric acid for removal of impurities and electrolysing
with suitable electrodes. NML has developed the process at a level
of 50 kg/day of EMD.
investment for setting up a production capacity of 2,500 TPA is
Rs. 16-18 crores.
manganese metal has a high degree of purity and is suitable as a
manganese additive for the manufacture of ferrous non-ferrous alloys.
The process has been developed for the production of electrolytic
manganese metal of 99.5% purity from low grade manganese ore. The
ore is first reduced then leached in the spent liquor that comes
out of the electrolytic cells. The leached solution is purified
for removal of impurities. Then it is electrolysed to give pure
manganese metal. CC for 1,000 tonnes EMM per year, production will
be about Rs. 7.5 crores.
Extra fine zinc dust
zinc dust is very fine zinc powder with upto 98% below 45 microns
having spherical particles. Its main use is in Paint Industry and
it is also used in sodium hydrosulphite and pharmaceutical industry.
The estimated cost of the plant having 1,000 MT per annum capacity
is about Rs. 1.3 crores.
Improved graphite crucibles
crucible are widely used for melting brass and other non-ferrous
alloy in iron and steel foundries. National Metallurgical Laboratory,
Jamshedpur has developed process for the manufacture of clay bonded
and carbon bonded crucibles.
Inoculants designated as NML-PM 122 for aluminium/aluminium
alloys (in the wire form)
incoculant in the wire form has been developed for aluminium/aluminium
alloys. The practice of inoculation in aluminium and its alloy melts
is to achieve grain refinement and hence to obtain cast structure
with uniform finer grain size. The finer grain size enhances the
thermochemical properties, reduces the risk of tearing, cracking
into mould etc. The demand has been estimated as 400 tonnes of conventional
inoculants. Its production can be taken up by units having facilities
for melting and wire drawing of aluminium and its alloys by putting
up additional melting and annealing furnaces.
Nickel magnesium alloy
process developed at NML, Jamshedpur envisages the production of
alloy by alloying nickel, magnesium and misch metal. The molten
alloy is cast at the appropriate temperature into steps or any shape
in metallic moulds. When solidified it can be stored and is ready
for use. Little capital investment is needed if the melting equipment
is available with the existing unit.
NML filters for aluminium and its alloys
and its alloys are always associated with dissolved hydrogen, oxide
and dross inclusion which deteriorate their mechanical properties,
workability and service performance. In order to improve the cleanliness
of the melt, National Metallurgical Laboratory has developed certain
reactive filters which have been successfully tried on commercial
scale. The salient features of the filter media are (i) high yield
of good quality product i.e. better surface finish, low inclusion
and dissolved gas content, (ii) reduction of sodium level in the
filtered material, and (iii) grain refining of the filtered material.
Recovery of lead from battery scrap
process recovers above 90% lead metal with metal purity around 98%.
The byproduct—Iron sulphide is recovered as solid sulphide which
can be used for the manufacture of H2S.
For the pollution control measures, the process requires dust catching
systems alongwith smelting furnace. Capacity,
900 TPA, Plant
& machinery cost - Rs. 50 lakhs.
Recovery of vanadium pentoxide from vanadium sludge of alumina
is an important metal which finds extensive uses in the form of
metal, oxides and alloys. Vanadium pentoxide is used mostly as catalyst
in sulphuric acid manufacture, for the production of ferro-venadium
and titanium vanadium-aluminium alloy and other vanadium compounds.
pentoxide produced has been compared with imported V2O3
of equivalent specification and found to be equally good. V2O5
has been found conforming to the refined grade.
Sponge iron production based on vertical retort direct reduction
iron is used in mini steel plants for production of steel. Based
on the installed capacity of mini steel plants in the country approximate
demand for sponge iron is about 1 million. TPA. NML has developed
the process for producing sponge iron based on vertical retart direct
reduction (VRDR) process. The process has advantages like low cost
of production, less energy consumption, higher productivity per
unit volume of reactor, increased percentage metallisation, use
of non coking coal etc. The process is based on the reduction of
iron oxide by solid reductant. Trials have been carried out on a
pilot plant scale producing about 1 tonne per day of sponge iron.
Stainless steel powder
steel powder is made from stainless steel scraps. It is used in
automobile industries. NML process is a chemical process and is
not based on atomisation. Yield obtained is 95-96%. 100 kg/day unit
can be installed initially with provision of expansions with an
investment of Rs. 18 lakhs approximately.
Vinyl coated steel and aluminium
coated steel and aluminium can be utilized in instrument and equipment
casing, electrical panelling and ducting, panelling in coaches and
knowhow developed for production of vinyl coated steel and aluminium
sheets involves a process comprising of (i) pretreatment of steel/aluminium
sheets, (ii) production of chemical conversion coatings such as
phosphating or chromating, (iii) application of primer followed
by baking, and (iv) application of a finish coat followed by baking
at appropriate temperature.
small scale industrial unit capable of producing 12,000 sheets of
1 sq. metre unit area per year based on
Process to treat molasses based effluent to remove colour
by chemical and membrane technology
treatment of effluent to produce permeate water, where the colour
of the effluent having a psychological impact on the public is removed.
This can be used as process water, thus creating a zero pollution
atmoshere and is eco-friendly. The quality obtained also conforms
to the standards of the Pollution Control Board. Capacity,
400, Plant & machinery
cost - Rs. 1.75 crores.
Beneficiation of graphite
in its pure form is employed in the production of various articles
such as crucibles, muffles, saggars, electrodes, paints, pencils,
etc. The knowhow gives 96 to 98% of pure graphite per annum. Estimated
capital outlay is Rs. 2.62 lakhs.
Electrolytic iron powder
purity iron powder is used in chemical industries as a catalyst,
automobile industries, welding electrodes, etc. The process developed
at RRL, Bhubaneswar, consists in the conversion of acid free iron
chloride into ferrous chloride. The ferrous chloride is used as
a catholyte and saturated solution of sodium chloride is used as
anolyte. The anode and cathode chambers are separated by using a
suitable porous diaphragm. Stainless steel sheets and graphite are
used as cathode and anode respectively. The deposited iron is removed
in the form of brittle flakes which are subsequently ground to the
desired size. The process has been studied on bench scale and 200
gm of iron powder per day has been produced. Suggested economic
unit for this industry is for the production of 30 tonnes of iron
powder per annum.
purity graphite finds application in special grade electrodes and
brushes, lubricants, sintered product, explosives, nuclear field,
etc. Graphite powder (90-96%), hydrochloride acid, the hydrofluoric
acid and sodium chloride are main raw materials required. SEU for
this industry is 250 tonnes of 90% graphite per annum.
Graphite aluminium composite
aluminium composite (GRAL) is a new inexpensive antifriction material
with very high potential for tribological applications. It can be
used for making pistons, cylinder liners, bearings, bushes, casings,
wear plates, pump impellers, etc.
knowhow developed consisting of dispensing graphite particles in
the aluminium alloy matrix by simple foundry metallurgy techniques.
The composites thus produced are cast in different shapes and sizes.
A unit to produce 90 TPA of composite materials requires an investment
of Rs. 5 lakhs towards the plant and machinery.
Injection system for coke breeze in cupola
technology has been developed for using coke breeze, a cheap and
abundantly available material in place of expensive coke. Trials
conducted have shown that 1 kg of coke breeze can replace 1.5 kg
of coke in ordinary cuplola and 2 kg of coke in divided blast cupolas.
Cost of production of hot metal with the use of coke breeze is reduced
by Rs. 50 per tonne as compared to normal operation. Trials have
been carried out in an existing steel melting unit. The annual savings
by the use of coke breeze in cupola having a capacity of
3,000 TPA is estimated to be about Rs. 10.5 lakhs.
Injection system for coke breeze in electric arc furnace
system has been developed for injecting coke breeze into electric
arc furnaces for achieving
overall increase in the thermal efficiency of the electric arc furnaces.
Advantages of this system include decrease in power consumption,
increase in the refractory line life, decrease in electrode consumption,
and decreae in melting time. The process has been developed on a
commecial scale with the design, fabrication, installation and operation
of this system at Alloy Steel Plant, Durgapur and Vishwesvaraiyya
Steel Plant, Bhadravati, Karnataka. The annual saving in power consumption
by the use of this system in electric arc furnace having a melt
capacity of 20 tonnes and annual production of 60,000 tonnes is
estimated at about 45,00,000 kw.
Injection system for ilmenite in blast furnace for hearth
system has been developed for overcoming the problems of erosion
of the refractory lining of the blast furnace. The eroded portion
can be filled up by injecting ilmenite. This process could also
be used in the new furnace as a preventive measure for hearth protection.
Commercial sized system is installed at Rourkela Steel Plant, Bhilai
Steel Plant and Bokaro Steel Plant. The pay back period by the use of injection system for
ilmenite in mini blast furnace having a capacity of 250 cu.m. is
estimated to be about 2 years (approx).
Injection system for pre-treatment of hot metal from
technology has been developed for pre-treatment of hot metal to
bring down the sulphur content. The drawbacks as experienced in
the conventional process of desulphurisation of hot metal have been
overcome in this newly developed system. Industrial scale trials
have been conducted to establish the degree of
desulphurisation. A fully automatic commercial sized system
has been installed at Durgapur Steel Plant.
Ladle heating system
type of system consists of the following major items: (a) Burners
which can use liquid/gaseous/dual fuel depending on the end usage
of capacity of ladle; (b) A ladle cover with proper thermal insulation
material; (c) Mechanism for lifting the ladle cover; (d) Control
system for operating lifting mechanism.
system has been designed, installed and operated on commercial scale
at a number of leading steel plants in India.
design/drawings could also be provided for any type of burners using
Laser based diameter gauge for round
can be used for measuring diameter
of hot rolled
round products. The gauge comprises of a laser transmitter, a laser
receiver unit and a PC based
signal processing unit. The gauge has a measurement range of 0-35
mm and can measure products upto temperature of 700°C. The approx.
cost per device works out to around
Rs. 8 lakhs. The gauge can be used in wire rods/rounds, cable,
cigarette manufacturing industries. A prototype has been fabricated
and extensively tested
at Dugapur Steel Plant.
Profilometer (Patented Technology)
equipment for measuring the wear of a roll/cylindrical body. This
instrument makes a major contribution to the quality of the product
by ensuring uniformity of thickness across the sheet width. It can
be used in both ferrous and non-ferrous rolling mills. It uses a
linear variable displacement transducer (LVDT) sensor for measurement
purposes and can measure rolls of size 800 to 1400 mm. The equipment
is being used at Bokaro
Steel Plant. The approx. cost per device works out to around
Rs. 2-3 lakhs.
Production of low phosphorous steel in electric arc furnace
conventional process of dephosphorisation by lump addition of lime
and fluorspar is disadvantageous due to increased oxidation time
and repeated slagging and deslagging operations which leads to loss
of metallic yield. A new system has therefore been developed for
overcoming these shortcomings. System has been developed and installed
for a 50 tonnes electric arc furnace.
Rescue and emergency care vehicle
Institute has developed a vehicle for transporting persons involved
in any medical emergency (including cardiac emergency) normally
encountered like mutliple injuries, head injury, abdominal injury
etc., to nearby hospital. The vehicle has been designed for easy
manoeuvrability though rough terrains and narrow lanes in small
towns. The vehicle is also suitable in urban areas as the specially
designed stretcher will enable to bring a patient down the stairs
in multi-storeyed buildings by one individual instead of four stretcher
bearers. Facilities like power, water etc. and provision for all
necessary medical equipment/stores have been provided in the design.
With a built-in wireless communication system, the vehicle can
provide service to an area within a radius of 10 km from the nearby
hospital. At present similar vehicles are being imported or received
as gifts from other countries. But these are not suitable for Indian
Non cyanide industrial zinc plating bath
to the strict enforcement of pollution regulation and high industrial
effluent treatment costs, non-cyanide acid zinc plating baths are
gaining importance over alkaline cyanide bath.
new acid plating solution has been developed from commercially readily
available common chemcials which has all the desirable advantages
like case of preparation and control of the bath, high cathode and
anode efficiencies over a wide range of operation current density,
uniformity of deposition, cheap, stable and low brightner consumption
without expensive waste treatment associated with cyanide solution.
The bath is useful for both rack and barrel plating.
Portland cement coating for steel
new protective coating developed is based on portland cement and
provides good protection to structural steel in salt laden atmosphere.
Portland cement, inhibitor solution and water glass are the main
raw materials required.
Selective black nickel plating of solar collectors
black nickel coating finds application in plating solar collectors
used for solar energy applications. At present selective coatings
are not reported to be used for commercial scale. CECRI has developed
a process for the manufacture of selective black nickel plating
for solar collectors. SEU for this industry is for putting up a
plant having a capacity of 5,000 sq.m. per year.
Glass reinforced gypsum composite boards
Calcutta, has developed glass reinforced gypsum boards which can
be used as partial substitute for wood. Raw materials for the process
are palster of Paris and glass fibres in the form of
rovings. GRG panels can be used for making door panels, flase
ceilings, partitions, furniture, etc. CC for a plant of capacity
12,000 panels per annum of size (2000 x 1000 x 6 mm thick) is Rs.
High performance kiln car deck slab for pottery industry
car deck slabs and kiln furniture are used for firing ceramic ware
in tunnel kiln. They are made from silicon carbide or alumino silicate
material. Kiln car deck slabs developed by CGCRI have a longer service
life of 150 firing cycles. SEU is 2100 pieces of deck slabs per
year with an annual investment of Rs. 41.38 lakhs.
Sol gel application of anti glare coating on ophthalmic lenses
glare coatings can be applied on ophthalmic lenses to control the
transmission of light through it. This avoids visual discomfort.
CC for 1.2 lakhs lenses per annum will be Rs. 4.56 lakhs.
Sol gel application of anti-glare coating on sheet glass
ultraviolet and blue spectrum light waves from the sun are harmful
to the eyes. The process sol-gel coating provides a method for applying
an antiglaring coating on sheet glass to control transmission of
light through it at a desired level. They are suitable for automobile
windows, home windows etc. CC for 1.5 lakhs sq.m. coating per annum
shall be Rs. 25.15 lakhs.
Special charcoal blocks used in polishing metal surfaces
process is very simple. The wood available indigenously is cut to
desired size according to the requirements of the consumer. The
wood pieces are then carbonized in externally heated metallic retorts
and the evolved gases are cooled in a condenser to separate the
liquid products namely tar and liquor and the stripped gas is collected
in a gas holder and is used as a fuel. From the liquid products,
a number of chemicals, viz. wood preservatives, methyl alcohol,
acetic acid, etc. can be made. The charcoal block produced by this
process is of a special nature and is suitable for polishing metal
capital investment of a plant producing 800 kg per year of special
charcoal blocks based on 300 working days in a year and 3 shifts
operation is estimated to be Rs. 20,000.
Labour Instt., Mumbai
Disposable breathing mask
breathing masks can be used by workers exposed to dust hazards and
as such will be useful in the cement plants, stone quarries, textile
industry, etc. The developed mask gives better filtering efficiency
and low resistance to breathing. The investment required to put
up a unit for producing 2,40,000 pcs. per annum has been estimated
at Rs. 2.09 lakhs.
Coir Board, Kochi
Coirret, environment friendly technology for coconut husk
is a consortia of microbes used in reducing the period of retting
of coconut husk and upgrading the quality of retted fibre and rets
green husk fibres into
retted fibre in 72 hours. The main raw materials are: bacteria,
media, laboratory chemicals & green husk etc. The suggested
plant capacity is 20 kg/day and plant and machinery cost is around
Rs. 20 lakhs.
Pithplus, environment friendly technology for coirpith bioconversion
of the problematic coirpith into an organic manure within 30 days.
The main raw materials are sorghum, urea, calcium carbonate, polybags
etc. The suggested
plant capacity is 80 kg/day and plant and machinery cost is around
Rs. 40 lakhs.
FRI, Dehradun, CSIR
Wood bending technology
of curved wood in furniture and housing is prevalent from ancient
times and is of key importance in many industries even today, especially in
those that manufacture furniture, sports goods, boats, ships and
several decorative and utility articles. Of the several methods
commonly used to produce curved parts of wood, bending is the most
economical from the pointy of view of quantity of material required
to make a curved member, retention of original strength of wood,
and is also perhaps the cheapest.
technique has been designed and developed for plasticization of
wood through vapour phase ammonia treatment for making bentwood
furniture components and other utility and fancy bent wood articles.
The unit consists of treating cylinder fitted with stainless steel
walls and pressure cum vacuum gauges, vacuum pump and water reservoir.
The process has been found to be effective even for important timbers,
which are not amenable to steam bending.
IIP, Dehradun, CSIR
Improved hurricane lantern
Dehradun, has developed an improved hurricane lantern which gives
more light and efficiency than existing model at no extra cost.
The cost of the lantern is estimated to cost Rs. 10 per unit.
Fire retardant for PVC coated cloth
order to impart fire-retardancy to the PVC cloth, a process has
been developed for producing. Phosphorus, based polymeric resin
which could be used as a coating material for the PVC cloth. The
coated cloth is more stable to leaching during washing and meets
the specifications of the ISI flammability test IS-1259/1984. The
coated cloth thus produced may be used for seat covers in automobiles
railway coaches, aircrafts, and as tent materials and also for various
Pour point depressant
is used as an additive, diesel oil, lubricating oil, turbine oil
etc. which are of high pour point when blended with 0.2 to 0.8%
by weight of the additive can depress the pour point of the oil
The SEU for this process is one tonne per day.
Rice husk particle boards
of boards from rice husk by the admixture of suitable binding agents
is the best method from the point of view of value addition and
complete utilisation of the husk.
process involves use of special adhesive which are efficient binders
of silicious materials. The husk is coated with this synthetic resin
adhesive in a specially desinged adhesive applicators, which is
then spread as an even mat on support cauls and consolidated under
heat and pressure in a hydraulic hot press. The resultant product
has many desirable properties making it suitable for numerous applications
such as wall panelling, doors, furniture, windows, table tops, false
product is termite resistant, decay resistant, rodent resistant,
water resistant, abrasive resistant and has adequate bond strength
for all proposed applications. It has good nail and screw holding
total project cost is about Rs. 2.5crores
with a plant and machinery cost of about Rs. 1.8 crores.
Institute for Research in Reproduction, Mumbai—ICMR
Agent to increase the milk yield in cattles
new antibody has been isolated from a naturally available protein.
Encouraging results have been observed in in-vitro conditions.
Synthetic peptide for superovulation
new synthetic peptide has been developed based on some naturally
available protein, to be used for superovulation and growth enhancement
in fishery, poultry and cattles. Work has been carried out at Laboratory
lantern is a non-pressurized mantle lantern. It produces light by
heating the thermoluminescent mantle to over 1000oC
and uses a non-burning, non-charring wick made of high temperature
material. It is low cost and efficient and gives light output of
245 lumens, which is equivalent to 25 watt electric bulb or 3-4
times the output of a hurricane lantern.
Refractory cement (Fondu Type)
cement commonly known as clacium aluminate cement is a base material
for making refractory castables. The highest temperature service
conditions recommended for such castable is of the order of 1350oC.
They find extensive application for making different types of shpaes
and lining various types of furnaces for ceramic and metallurgical
varieties of other copying papers are now being used in many of
business communications, the demand for carbon paper is still
increasing whereas the production is limited. The process
has been worked out on commercial scale.
process as a whole consists of preparation of coloured ‘ink or dope’,
application of the coloured ink on the paper surface, drying and
rewinding of coated paper and finally cutting of finished paper
in standard sizes and packing. The cost of the plant and machinery
for a 2000 boxes containing 100 carbon papers (size 210 x 330 mm)
per day would be around Rs. 10-12 lakhs.
boards are extensively used in textile industry for weaving puroses.
The process for making jacquard board is particularly advantageous
for existing board mills for product diversification and can be
adopted without any additonal investment on plant and machinery.
The plant and machinery cost for one TPD capacity plant has been
estimated to be Rs. 6 lakhs.
lay up technique for moulding of banana fabric polymer composite
process developed using natural fibre is likely to substitute glass
fibre. The product can be used as laminates and protective covers,
mirror casing, voltage stabilizer, boxes etc. The SEU for this industry
is 7,500 units/annum or 4,500 kg/annum and having a capital investment
of Rs. 2.07 lakhs (1984). This excludes the cost of land and building.
Agrowaste compaction machine
utilised agricultural wastes like saw dust, groundnut shells, bagasse,
bamboo dust, straw etc. efficiently the waste have to be in compacted
form. The agrowaste compaction machine has been developed by SAR
in collaboration with NRDC to briquette all the agricultural waste
without using any binder. The machine is available, in three different
designs viz. manually operated, bullock operated and power operated
with capacities of 50 kg, 150-200 kg and 250 kg respectively, of
briquetted fuel per day of 8 hours.
Disposable blood bag system
blood bag system has been developed using non-toxic polymeric materials
for collection, storage and transfusion of blood & blood components.
At present the blood bags are mainly imported under OGL. These bags
can successfully replace the bottles used at present due to advantages
like non-contamination, easy transportation and elimination of losses
due to breakages. The bags have been tested and found to
meet International quality requirements.
manufacturing process broadly involves compounding, sheet &
tube extrusion, welding, injection moulding, testing including animals
trials. All the processing has to be carried out in a very sterile
atmosphere/Good Manufacturing Practice.
potential for the product is very encouraging. At a very conservative
estimate the demand is about 10 million per annum. The manufacturing
unit giving a good price advantage over imports with quality assurance
to International standards will have vast scope in meeting the market
requirements. Approximate investments for setting up a unit with
a production capacity of 2 million single bags per annum is about
Rs. 250 lakhs.
Resham jyothi, wide spectrum silkworm bed disinfectant
wide spectrum silkworm bed disinfectant for silkworms diseases like
muscardine, grasserie, pebrine and flacherie etc. The main raw materials
are chemicals, packing materials etc.
The suggested plant capacity is 500 kg/day and plant and
machinery cost is around Rs. 6
Vijetha, multiple use silkworm bed disinfectant
silkworm bed disinfectant for silkworm diseases like muscardine,
grasserie, pebrine etc. The main raw materials are chemicals, packing
materials etc. The
suggested plant capacity is 400 kg/day and plant and machinery cost
is around Rs. 5 lakhs.
paints are widely used as decorative and waterproofing exterior
coating for surfaces such as cement concrete, cement plaster, asbestos
cement sheet, brick works, etc. These paints can be used in interior
surfaces also. The process is simple and is based on indigenously
capital investment for a plant having a production capacity of 2
tonnes per day is estimated at Rs. 5 lakhs and working capital for
two months is Rs. 10 lakhs.
Fire retardant paints
is a building material invariably used in all types of buildings,
but no treatment is known which will prevent wood from charring
at elevated temperature. The Institute has developed a fire retardant
paint which can be easily applied to the surface.
Silicate based waterproofing formulation
paints currently in use as protective coatings for plasters are
porous in nature and therefore can be considered as a best damp
proof. Only silicons are known to give a water repellent film but
these are very costly. As a suitable water proofing formulation
has been developed.
capital investment for a plant capable of producing 400 litres per
day of 2 shifts, i.e., 1.20,000 litres per year of 300 working days
has been estimated at Rs. 6 lakhs and working capital for 3 months
is Rs. 10 lakhs.
Anti-corrosion packaging paper
anti-corrosion packaging paper is used for the prevention of corrosion
of all types of ferrous engineering items such as machine tools,
hardwares machine parts, automobile parts, etc. The process envisages
the dissolution of inhibitive chemicals either in water or solvent.
The solution is taken in the tray of the coating unit and paper
is coated at room-temperature by roller coating technique and dried
during travel. The coated paper is wound in rolls.
Calcium chromate/iron oxide primer
chromate/iron oxide primer can be used on all types of steel structures
such as bridges, towers, tanks and girders. This primer is not reported
to be used at present in India and the present demand is being met
by the use of other primers such as red lead primers and red oxide/zinc
chromate primers. The advantages of using calcium chromate iron
oxide primer are : (i) it gives twice the life of zinc chromate
red oxide primer, (ii) the performance is quite comparable with
the costlier zinc chromate primer.
process consists of mixing calcium chromate with red oxide in certain
ratio in a suitable medium and grinding the pigment and vehicle.
The balls are then removed and the viscosity is adjusted with the
Inhibitor for prevention of corrosion cooling water system
inhibitor is useful for control of corrosion in cooling water systems.
The process consists in thoroughly mixing four different chemical
in solid form in proper ratio. SEU for the industry is 30 TPA.
Lacquer for corrosion prevention
can be used for the preservation of simple metal assemblies e.g.
crane shaft, crank-shafts, hand tools, etc. It may also be suitable
for the preservation of metal stores during storage and transit.
The process envisages the dissolution of asphalt or coal tar pitch,
resin and corrosion inhibitor. Suggested economic unit for this
industry is for producing 60,000 litres of corrosion preventive
lacquer per annum.
stripper developed by CECRI can be used in removing old paints (stoved
enamel rubber paints, bituminous and coal tar based paints). The
process for making paint stripper is simple. Suggested optimum capacity
of the plant is 1,50,000 litres of paint stripper per annum.
9. Red lead red oxide primer
lead red oxide primer has application or all steel structures i.e.
bridges, towers, tanks, rail coaches, exposed to atmosphere. The
new process consists in mixing red lead red oxide pigment in different
ratios in double boiled linseed oil.
rust preventive oil
or phosphated mild steel components have to be dried before the
application of temporary corrosion preventives. Because of the time
lag involved between drying and oiling, the components develop rusting.
The water displacing rust preventive oil developed displaces the
water from the metals components and forms an oil film on the surface.
The process consists in mixing different constituents under stirred
conditions to get homogenous solution.
Rust prevention composition
prevention composition can be used to phosphate steel structure
after removing rust and scale to prevent the structures from rusting
before painting. The jelly is based on plant carbohydrates and mineral
acid. SEU for this industry is 630 tonnes of jelly per annum.
Zinc ethyl silicate primer
primer can be used for the protection of all types of steel structures
in marine environments in place of conventional primers like red
oxide/zinc chromate, red lead, etc., which do not give adequate
protection and therefore require finishing paints. The cost of protection
by this primer is less than the conventional primers.
process developed consists of mixing zinc dust with ethyl silicate
binder along with dibutyl phthalate titanium dioxide and antimony
trioxide and the consistency is adjusted with xylen. The suggested
optimum capacity is 150 tonnes per year (300 working days) for which
investment towards plant and machinery is about Rs. 60,000 whereas
working capital will be about Rs. 10 lakhs.
Zinc phosphate pigment as anticorrosive primer
phosphate finds application in the preparation of anticorrosive
primer. The process consists in adding suitably diluted orthophosphoric
acid to the slurry of zinc carbonate. SEU for the industry is for
the production of 300 tonnes of products per annum.
Zinc rich primer
rich primer in organic medium may find application in the protection
of steel structures in marine and industrial environments. The improved
zinc pigmented paint developed at CECRI has better performance.
SEU for the industry is for the production of 150 tonnes of product
Zinc sodium silicate primer
are used for the protection of steel surfaces. The process developed
consists in reacting zinc dust with sodium silicate and addition
of red lead. SEU for the industry is for the production of 150 tonnes
of primer per annum.
ceramics are used for grinding media, kiln furniture, ignition boat,
tubes and rods, laboratory wares, cylindrical pins (insulating),
thermostat switches, crucibles, spark plugs, flow controllers (oil
drilling), wire drawing nozzles, TIG nozzles, chemical slurry nozzles,
friction rings, etc. Estimated capital outlay for 270 tonnes of
the product per annum is Rs. 95 lakhs.
Low lead wirewound
enamels are used for applying an impervious coating on wirewound
resistors. The process envisages lesser use of lead oxide which
is an imported material. SEU for this industry is 6 tonnes of enamel
per annum and estimated capital outlay is Rs. 2 lakhs.
textured coating are used for protection and decoration of most
exterior surfaces. It is ideal for metal, concrete masonry and wood
surfaces and can be used for buildings, hotels, schools, etc. SEU
is Rs. 1.5 lakhs/litre and capital outlay Rs. 9.6 lakhs.
scale use of petroleum based plastics has threatened natural environment
the world over. The Central Tuber Crops Research Institute (CTCRI),
Thiruvananthapuram, under Indian Council of Agricultural Research
(ICAR) has recently developed a technology to produce bio-degradable
plastics which is eco-friendly and affordable. It can be put to
many end uses like mulch bags or nursery bags, garbage bags etc.
The major raw material used are LDPE and starch along with the coupling
and gelatinising agents and plasticisers. The technology can be
easily adopted by the existing plastic granules manufacturers, with
slight modifications in the plant and machinery.
DLW, Varanasi—Ministry of Railways
Spatter resistant paint
welding, the weld metal spatter falls on the base metal adjacent
to the area being welded. These globules of metal stick on to the
base metal and have to be ground off. In certain applications, these
globules get dislodged due to vibrations and get access into the
various piping systems and create operational difficulties. By painting
the adjacent area with the spatter resistant paint to welding, the
spatter can be easily removal by simple brushing.
Pigment grade red oxide of iron
oxide of iron finds application in paints, plastics, rubber, ceramic
and other industries. The
Synthetic inorganic pigment
inorganic pigment is used as an ingredient in paints. It can also
be used in belt polishes. the process involves dissolving the iron
oxide in water. The slurry is then mixed with ferrous sulphate solutions,
sulphuric acid and potassium ferrocyanide. The process has been
studied on 0.5 kg per batch scale. SEU for the industry is 15 TPA.
Synthetic iron oxide (red & black)
oxide is used as inorganic pigment. The new process involves the
addition of milk or lime to the solution of ferrous chloride resulting
in the precipitation of ferrous hydroxide. Air is bubbled in to
oxidize are ferrous hydroxide to the magnetic oxide (black) stage.
The black oxide is suitably roasted to get oxide of iron. Suggested
economic unit for this industry is the production of 60 tonnes of
synthetic iron oxide black and red per annum.